Week 2 Discussion 1
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No Plagiarism please. I have attached a discussion as an example. I am a MFC student. I have also attached the teachers expectations.
Applying Codes of Ethics
Counseling codes of ethics establish client expectations as well as expectations among members of the profession. The most obvious expectation is that counselors must know the ethical codes of the professional groups or organizations (e.g., ACA, IAMFC, and/or AMHCA). Ethical standards, as expressed by such professional groups, represent the ideal. A professional code of ethics is a standard of conduct that a practitioner adheres to in order to affiliate with that group. This affiliation is a choice to accept the standards of the professional body and be subject to disciplinary actions of the organization if codes are violated. The ability to reason with ethical principles and to arrive at a decision for which you are accountable is what constitutes an ethical counseling practice.
The ethical codes of various professional organizations offer some guidance for practice. However, these guidelines can often leave many ethical questions unanswered and are often insufficient to explicitly deal with every situation. Students and professionals alike must ultimately resolve personal issues of responsible practice. They also should decide how accepted principles apply in specific cases. It is often difficult to interpret ethical codes for specific clients.
For this Discussion, review the Ethical Decision-Making Game media and begin to evaluate different ethical challenges presented to prepare you to complete your Discussion. Review the Learning Resources for this week and select a case study from the ACA Ethical Standards Casebook. Use the Case Analysis Worksheet for this Discussion. Do not turn your worksheet in as part of your Discussion. Then, select one of three case studies presented. Consider ethical challenges in the case related to the codes of ethics you have selected and reflect on potential strategies for preventing them.
a brief description of the case study you selected from the ACA Ethical Standards Casebook and the codes of ethics you will be applying. Explain the ethical challenges in the case related to the codes of ethics you have selected. Finally, explain how this ethical challenge might have been prevented. Then, apply the ACA 2014 Code of Ethics to one of this week’s assigned case studies and either the 2015 AMHCA Code of Ethics or the IAMFC Ethical Codes to another case study. (MCFC students must use the IAMFC Ethical Codes.)
Be sure to use the Learning Resources and the current literature to support your response.
Respond by Day 5
to a colleague who selected a different case study and suggest an alternative strategy to address these ethical challenges.
Week 2 Discussion 1
Main Post: Ashley L. Shackelford Brief Description of case study and ethical issues The case I choose to selected was Case Study 16: A Suicidal Teenager (Herlihy & Corey, 2015). The case was about a seventeen-year-old boy names Frank, who had been referred to a counselor in private practice because of many recent changes in his behavior that his parents had noticed. They had express concern for Frank because we began to give away many of his prized possessions and they also reported Frank is given expressions of hopelessness and anger. During the first session the counselor found out that Frank had been contemplating committing suicide. Stating “I’ve already found the best answer to my problems” Herlihy & Corey, 2015). This statement uncovered Frank’s friend who committed suicide and his plan to do it himself. Frank suicidal thoughts are the result of a recent breakup with his girlfriend, his lack of an interpersonal relationship with his parents and use of drugs when he feels angry or guilty and something. Ethical Challenge ACA Code of Ethics B.2.a (2014) specifically states that the ethical requires a counselor first inform clients of the limitations of confidentiality and to identify any instance or situations where their confidentiality is broken. As a counselor ethically we have a duty to warn and make sure our clients are not harmful to their selves or others. Because legally Frank is still considered a minor because he is seventeen, a counselor must specifically state these issues and concerns with his parents. Frank disclosing his thoughts, future plan, and past attempts warrant that revealing this information with his parents could save his life on Standard B.2.a. The use of Standard B.6.b. would could also be used in Frank’s case because maintaining the confidentiality of any records or documentation is critical. If a counselor was to tell Frank’s parent about the thoughts, plan and past behavior it would create distrust for the therapeutic relationship. Ethical Challenge Prevented This case raises many ethical challenges but there are also some ways it could have been prevented. As a counselor especially with working with minors they first step would have been to start the session off reminding the client of their rights and limited confidentiality also at the point where Frank began to disclose his thoughts and future plan to end his life. When a counselor does not remind a client of their rights we is putting the client at harm again. The counselor wanted to do everything possible to ensure that their client did not harm their-selves or others by creating a plan to move past the suicide onto a better and productive life. 2010 AMHC Code of Ethics In the Case Study 4: Working with an Immigrant Family (Herlihy & Corey, 2015), Esmeralda the client is a U.S. citizen who has feelings of worrying about not being able to not only be able to attend to the house hold responsibilities but also care for her young siblings. On the other hand, she juggling school and her parent’s possible deportation. As a counselor Francis first concern is his clients health and well-being her list of priorities are beginning to take a toal on her school work. During the sessions, Esmeralda is able to open up and trust the environment in which she shares nightmares that keep her up at night but moves right past the situation. The counselor begins to continue pressing the issue at hand and receives full disclosure of what Esmeralda is really going through. The counselor than seeks clarification from a school interpreter on the process of immigration but is juggling the possibility of putting Esmeralda family in danger. Ethical Codes to Be Applied In Esmeralda case the ethical code that should be applied in this instance is Section 2.a. of AMHCA, this code states that a client is granted the right for confidentiality in all instances of mental health counseling services and from the onset of a counseling relationship, counselors must inform clients of their rights and limitations (2010). During the session the counselor continued to press on an issues that Esmeralda was not ready to disclose, when she did disclose the issues in full detail she was not informed of her rights. Reference American Counseling Association (ACA). (2014). 2014 ACA code of ethics. Retrieved from http://www.counseling.org/Files/FD.ashx?guid=ab7c1272-71c4-46cf-848c-f98489937dda American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHCA). (2010). 2010 AMHCA code of ethics [White Paper]. Retrieved from https://www.amhca.org/assets/news/AMHCA_Code_of_Ethics_2010_w_pagination.pdf Herlihy, B., & Corey, G. (2015). ACA ethical standards casebook (7th ed.). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Week 2 Discussion 1
BASIC GUIDELINES Hi Class, As we begin our journey there are a few things I wanted to point out that will help you move right along in this class. First and foremost PLEASE read announcements EVERY TIME you log into the classroom. I put VERY important information in this section Every time you log into the classroom check the “Announcements” section to see if I posted anything new. I often put very important information in there and give you reminders. Please know that since we have transitioned to Blackboard EVERY assignment must be submitted to TURNITIN. By Monday, you will find in DOC SHARING that I provided you with an APA template for EACH week there is an application assignment. Please use these templates as they are already in APA format and will prevent you from losing points for the basics of APA. It also helps you focus on content. You will still need to write in APA format, but I have created all of your headers and title page so that you have your basic APA in place. I will also always put the APA template in the discussion forum on Tuesday of the current week if there is an application is due that week. When posting your MAIN DQ follow these rules: Please put “LAST NAME, FIRST INITIAL” MAIN DQ POST in your subject line as a RESPONSE TO YOUR MAIN DQ. In addition, in your main DQ post I am looking for a minimum of ONE, but prefer TWO scholarly citations (preferably from your resources for the week). In addition, please be sure to put your references at the end of your post in APA format. The easiest way to put a citation within your text and at the end of your post in proper APA format is to refer to your APA manual or you can also use the website http://citationmachine.net/index2.php or of course your APA manual. In your main post, you must cite scholarly citations in every paragraph to support your points. When posting your response to a PEER please follow these rules: Please put RESPONSE TO “PEERS NAME)” MAIN DQ in the subject line of your peer response post. Please also remember that when responding to a peer in the discussion forum that to get credit for a “response to a peer” it must be a response to a peer’s MAIN DISCUSSION POST, not a response to a peer that left a response to your post or a response to me. In addition, although you are not required to use in-text scholarly citations (Reminder: wikipedia, ask.com, dictionary.com, ehow.com etc. are NOT scholarly) they are often used to support your points when responding to a peer. However, it is possible to write a substantive post without a scholarly citation, but be sure you are looking at the rubric to see what “substantive” entails when responding to a peer.. It is important to note that responding to a peer is worth quite a few points ( again see discussion rubric), so add depth to your post. Write your own words, you can use a citation to support your words and then ask a probing question, provide further insight or give an alternate viewpoint. Be sure to list your references on both your main discussion question and your post to a peer at the end of each response when you are citing. You can and should respond to any posts that your peers leave for you to keep the discussions moving, but you will not get credit to responding to a peer unless it is a response to their main DQ post. Please email me if you have any questions. * See additional section at the bottom of this paper that addresses peer responses. Although, I encourage you to respond to my posts it IS NOT a requirement and DOES NOT count as a peers’ response. However, at the end of the term if you are close to the next grade I will often go back and see if you responded to some of my posts or more than the required peer responses. In order to get “exemplary” score from the rubric you must go beyond what the discussion is asking. When you responding to a peer you want it to be meaningful and moves the discussions forward. You should be writing at least a paragraph. Since we have students from all over the country and world we will be using USA Mountain Standard Time (MST) as the time to turn in all assignments. I will give a 2 hour leeway in case BLACKBOARD is registering in EST (which has in the past) Also, in the classroom on the left vertical banner you will see a Term Calendar that shows the date and the day of the week. Be sure to follow this. Please remember that the due date is the due date. Unless you have a MAJOR extenuating circumstance (hospitalized, natural disaster, death in family etc.) where valid PROOF will be needed or you have another valid reason where you have notified me ahead of time and I have approved a no penalty you will lose points. Please understand, “my internet is down, I had to work overtime this week, my computer crashed etc.) are not valid excuses. All of these have been used. The office of disability can also work with you if you have circumstances that meet the accommodations for a disability extension. In our profession and within our department we write in APA style. Writing in scholarly format is one of the key components to be successful in this program. I have noted a few things below that will help you do this. In addition, each week an application is due, I will upload an APA application template for that week for you to use. Be sure you review the APA power point presentation in DOC SHARING as wells at the APA tips in DOC SHARING. Both of these documents will help you with your writing. SOME VERY IMPORTANT RULES TO REMEMBER WHEN WRITING IN APA: Your cover page is considered page 1. However, your cover page and reference page are not considered as part of the total pages due for each assignment. For example, if you are to write a 3-5 page paper, that means the actual content has to be this amount of pages. EACH AND EVERY paragraph should be a minimum of 3 sentences. In addition, it should have at least one scholarly citation to support your points. A citation means you are either paraphrasing or citing a scholarly source or you are using a short quote (10-15 words) and citing a scholarly source to support your points. I prefer you paraphrase your author and then cite them versus quoting. An example of a paraphrased citation would be: They are thoroughly familiar with the policies and procedures of the organization and with the contract terms of employees and follow these policies and procedures in executing their responsibilities (Remley & Herlihy, 2010). Or, for more than two authors: Ethical counselors are role models for supervisees of appropriate ethical and professional behavior (Magnuson, Black, & Norem, 2004). A sample of a quote would be: “Prior to offering clinical supervision services, counselors are trained in supervision methods and techniques” (Herlihy & Corey, 2006, p. 44). Notice on a quotation there is a page number and also notice that there are quotations marks around the quote. Notice were commas and period go. You do not put a period before the first (. The period goes after the last ). This is a common mistake I see when gradeing. Another example of a quote would be: According to Corey (2006) “Counseling supervisors pursue continuing education in counseling and supervision topics regularly” (p. 44). Your ENTIRE paper should be in TIMES NEW ROMAN FONT 12 and DOUBLE SPACED If you are using a quote more than 40 words it MUST be in a block quotation. PLEASE do not use a block quotation on your papers that are 5 pages or less and no more than one on papers 5- 10 pages. In actuality block quotes should rarely be used. In a block quotation, you should not use any quotations at all unless they are needed to indicate a quotation within the original text. Block quotes should be rarely used. I would just recommend you paraphrase and cite your author(s) instead, or use small quotes (about 10 words). There are NO contractions (i.e can’t won’t don’t) used in your papers. SPELL them out. So for example, instead of saying, “counselors aren’t medical doctors,” say, “counselors are not medical doctors.” You should be writing in THIRD person unless otherwise noted (The author, the scholar-practitioner, the counselor trainee, the writer etc.). DO NOT write in first person (i.e “I” or “My.” There are times when this is appropriate and usually I will let you know or feel free to ask. Also, be consistent when writing in Third Person. For example, if you say, “The author will discuss basic counseling skills in this paper.” Then stay with “the author” throughout your paper versus using other third person words (i.e the counselor trainee, the writer, etc) throughout. Just stay consistent with whichever third person word you use throughout your paper. If you are struggling with how to reference a citations of any kind on your reference page. You can go to http://citationmachine.net/index2.php click on APA and fill in the parts that you know and it will format your citation properly. This is a USER FRIENDLY site. When citing an acronym (ACA, AMHCA) you must spell it out first in your paragraph. For example: You would say: The 2005 American Counseling Association (ACA) Codes of Ethics and then if you are going to use it again in your paragraph or throughout your paper. You just need to say: The 2005 ACA Codes of Ethics Here is a YouTube video a former student has shared. It’s about 9 minutes long. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9pbUoNa5tyY&feature=related It is a quick demonstration of how to set up basic APA formatting using the 6th edition. I thought I’d pass it on to you! A more in-depth tutorial 30 minutes long that Walden has created can be found by clicking on this link: I am requesting that EACH of you review this 30 minute tutorial on APA format. http://my.campuscruiser.com/cruiser/waldenu/ctl/student_selfpaced_trainings/Academic_Integrity/Academic_Integrity_for_Students.htm I know APA format can be challenging so I will work very hard in providing the best feedback I can to help you work through some of the challenges. However, taking the time to read everything in the folder and reviewing the materials that Walden University has provided with you will give you a great opportunity to have a successful start to your journey. I am here to help you in any way that I possibly can. Please do not hesitate to email me or call me with questions. Here are a few more samples of citations: Citations of Chapters within an Edited Text Many text books are written by a single author and should be cited and referenced accordingly (see APA Manual pp. 202-204 for examples). On the other hand, some text books are edited by a particular author but sections or whole chapters will be written by contributing authors. Our textbook Orientation to the Counseling Profession: Advocacy, Ethics, and Essential Professional Foundations is an example of an edited text. As such, you cannot attribute any given section of the text simply to Bradley Erford unless it was specifically written by him. In most cases, you will need to reference the contributing authors of specific chapters. If not, you will be crediting Erford with work that he did not author. Here are some examples of how you might cite different parts of this type of book. Whole text: Erford, B. T. (Ed.). (2010). Orientation to the counseling profession: Advocacy, ethics and essential professional foundations. New Jersey: Pearson. Chapter within the Erford text: Eaves, S. H., Erford, B. T., & Fallon, M. K. (2010). Becoming a professional counselor: Philosophical, historical, and future considerations. In B. T. Erford (Ed.), Orientation to the counseling profession: Advocacy, ethics, and essential professional foundations (pp. 3-23). New Jersey: Pearson. As you see above, be sure to give the authors of the chapter and then list Erford as the editor of the text. You will italicize the title of the book but NOT the title of the chapter. And, you will list the pages of the entire chapter being cited. In text citations: To understand the counseling profession we must understand its history (Eaves, Erford, & Jallon, 2010). As described by Eaves, Erford, and Jallon (2010), understanding the history of our profession is essential to understanding who we are as professional counselors. As stated by Eaves, Erford, and Jallon (2010), “a profession without a history lacks direction and trajectory” (p. 3). I want to ensure that I help direct students to some of the strange and unique expectations and mores of online learning and some of the rules of APA format. It can be a whole new daunting world, but I want to make sure that it is as approachable as possible! With that in mind, I have a few suggestions for this and future posts: * Use blank lines between paragraphs to break up reading. Remember that students are required to read all posts in a week, and blocks of text can be a major strain on the eyes! * Ensure you title your posts appropriately; see the syllabus or my examples for how to title your posts. * Include your references in full at the end of posts. Please see the sample post and/or the APA document in doc sharing for information about how to provide a reference list. * Only those works that are cited in text are to be listed in the reference list. * Ensure that you cite in text. The key to knowing when to cite is this: unless it originates in your very own mind, you must cite it (otherwise it is plagiarism). If you have learned it somewhere before and have not read it in an article you are using but it didn’t originate in your mind, then you must FIND a source to support what you have written. This is not to say that every sentence needs a citation. You can use transitional phrases (like Further, In addition, The authors also, etc.) to keep from having to cite when multiple sentences in a row are from the same source. MORE INFO ON RESPONDING TO A PEER: When responding to a peer, not only do you cite at least one reference, be sure to ask a probing question, or provide an alternate viewpoint to give insight that will move the discussion forward. This will fall under the rubric sections of ”Content Knowledge.” WHAT IS EXPECTED IN YOUR PEER RESPONSE(S) Most students, when losing points, are losing them from their peer response(s). Double check the notes that I left for you in the gradebook; if it says anything about peer responses, you likely have lost the majority of the points from your peer responses. Please consider revisiting the rubric to ensure that you have covered all of the necessary points (this is good practice for applications as well as discussions). According to the rubric, among other thing (i.e. quality of writing), the peer response(s) need to: 1. Go beyond what is required in some meaningful way (e.g., contribute a new dimension, unearth something unanticipated, etc.); 2. Be substantive, reflective, evidence-based; 3. Demonstrate that the student has read, viewed, and considered the Learning Resources; 4. Demonstrate that the student has read, viewed, and considered and a sampling of colleagues’ postings; 5. Be posted by the due date; 6. Demonstrate in-depth understanding and application of concepts and issues presented in the course (e.g., insightful interpretations or analyzes; accurate and perceptive parallels, ideas, opinions, and conclusions); 7. Show that the student has absorbed the general principles and ideas presented; 8. Be well-supported by pertinent research/evidence from a variety of and multiple peer-reviewed books and journals 9. Demonstrate mastery and thoughtful/accurate application of skills or strategies presented in the course. 10. Significantly contribute to the quality of the discussion/interaction and thinking and learning 11. Provide rich and relevant examples; 12. Provide discerning and thought-provoking ideas; 13. Provide stimulating thoughts and probes; 14. Provide new perspectives; and 15. Provide original and critical thinking. Whew! That is a lot of stuff to cover! As many of you have noticed, the discussion directions state that you must post “at least one” peer response. I have not yet seen a peer response that has been able to provide all of these things in one post. According to the rubric in the classroom, a peer response earning the full 16 points needs to be “responsive to and exceed the requirements” of the discussion instructions. In other words, minimum peer responses do not earn maximum points. Here are three examples of peer responses that will likely earn no points: 1. Good post! Well done! Thanks for making me think differently about this. 2. Wow, that was a great post! I agree with you 100% on X. What are your thoughts on Y? 3. Thanks for your thoughts on the client. What do you think about open ended questions? What, if anything, would you do differently if your client was an alcoholic? Here are three examples of strong peer responses: 1. PEER RESPONSE TO STUDENT I think I agree with everybody to one extent or another in this discussion. As George mentioned, Freud is challenging to me because of the association of sexual terms with childhood development. I also have issues with the concept that personality is completely formed in childhood (Levitt & Bray, 2010). Perhaps it is. Perhaps I am just being optimistic that some changes are still possible. Perhaps I am not understanding what Freud intended to define as personality versus how our personality responds to events and subsequently drives behaviors. As Kaiko has noted, though, I cannot deny the impact my childhood has had on the rest of my life, my behaviors, and my decision to be a counselor now. Within the context of psychodynamic theories, I lean towards Adlerian theory because it still acknowledges the impact of childhood while allowing for the possibility of growth and a sense of the client as “whole” not fractured (Levitt & Bray, 2010, p. 103). References Levitt, D.H. and Bray, A (2010). Chapter Four: Theories of Counseling. In Erford, B. (Ed.) Orientation to the Counseling Profession: Advocacy, Ethics, and Essential Professional Foundations (p. 95-123). Upper Saddle River, NJ. Pearson Education, Inc. 2. PEER RESPONSE TO STUDENT I thought it was very creative of you to construct possible statements for Mike and Jan based on the information in the vignette. I wonder what would be different if you had addressed the positive experience they had over the weekend. I also thought your responses were appropriate for each of the types assigned to us. I do have a concern about one portion of your paraphrase response. You stated, “I am sorry that you feel overwhelmed by the amount of arguing” (2010, July 8). I wonder if this is a type of countertransference. Sheperis and Ellis (2010) describe countertransference as a “projection of beliefs, emotions, or experience… from the counselor to the client” (p. 139). While at first glance it may not seem like “I’m sorry” is a judgment of the client’s current state, the client may feel otherwise. It inserts your feelings into the client’s reality. I think sometimes this is appropriate, but most of the time it is a personal reflex that should be left out. The times I have found it appropriate are when a client has gone through an awful trauma and needs the acknowledgment that what happened was not okay by any means. Arguing could lead to positive changes. Maybe it is not such a bad thing. If the counselor is sorry the client is having a bad experience then it kind of validates it as a bad experience instead of leaving the possibility open for it to be a good experience in the end. “I’m sorry” is perceived as such a benign, well-intentioned sentiment that it is difficult to explain the subtle shift in client response it can create. Just a thought. References Lastname, F. (2010, July 8). Counseling process and skills [Online forum content]. Retrieved from http://sylvan.live.ecollege.com/ec/crs/default.learn?CourseID=4199853&Survey=1&47=7225359&ClientNodeID=984642&coursenav=1&bhcp=1 Sheperis, D and Ellis, C (2010). Chapter Five: The Counseling Process. In Erford, B. (Ed.) Orientation to the Counseling Profession: Advocacy, Ethics, and Essential Professional Foundations (p. 124-147). Upper Saddle River, NJ. Pearson Education, Inc. 3. PEER RESPONSE TO STUDENT You and many others in the class (2010, July 26-31) note Satcher, Friel, and Bell’s (2000) statistic regarding the increase in disaster reporting over the last 30 years as one justification for current call for increased focus on disaster/ crisis counseling. Since this happens to be my area of focus, my question to you is a devil’s advocate question. Wars and natural disasters have occurred throughout history. Do you believe that the increase in the reporting (emphasis on that word) of these events is justification enough to create a sub-specialty within mental health counseling? If not, bearing in my mind that these types of disasters have always occurred and so have their PTSD effects, what would justify the creation of this sub-specialty? References COUN-6100-29 Introduction to Mental Health Counseling Students [Multiple student postings]. (2010, July 26 through 31.) Crisis management and response [Online forum content]. Retrieved from http://sylvan.live.ecollege.com/ec/crs/default.learn?CourseID=4199853&Survey=1&47=7225359&ClientNodeID=984642&coursenav=1&bhcp=1 Satcher, D., Friel, S., & Bell, R., (2000). Natural and manmade disasters and mental health. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298(21), 2540-2542. RECENT QUESTIONS I HAVE BEEN ASKED/THINGS OBSERVED Finally, here are some specific questions and answers that have surfaced in the recent past: 1. In accordance to APA format, you must always provide a reference list, even in your discussion posts. This is how readers reference what you are citing in text. 2. I am not considered a peer in terms of your peer responses; one post to me and another to a peer does not demonstrate that you have read, viewed, and considered a sampling of colleagues’ postings. 3. Many peer responses have included thought provoking questions, but have not offered your own thoughts, been grounded by literature, nor provided evidence of having reviewed and considered the learning resources and student discussions. Make sure that you touch all of the points of the rubric. 4. Like the Application late policy, I deduct 3 points for main discussion posts. Per the syllabus, posts made after day 7 the week they are due do not receive credit. This is to ensure that everyone has the opportunity to complete their peer responses with sufficient time. 5. It is to your benefit if you use headings for your main posts; I think you will find that you respond more fully if you outline the sections that you need to respond to. 6. YOU ARE EXPECTED TO READ ALL PEER RESPONSES, as well as respond to those who asked you questions, offered insights (including me!) This is a discussion forum, and it requires at least two people to discuss something (otherwise we are all just talking to ourselves!) I know this is a lot of information here and that is why I try to get it out early. Be sure to adhere to the rubrics outlined in the classroom. In some cases to get full credit you need to go beyond the required postings. I recognize these guidelines can be overwhelming, but I assure you I put them in place to help you be successful in this course as not to overwhelm you. I am here to help you in any way that I can so please email me if you are struggling or just have questions, comments or concerns. I look forward to beginning our journey together!! Warmly, Dr. Russo
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