social psychology discussion 3

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Please provide comments for each student’s answers (2). ***Minimum 250 words, must cite one references/chapter on each response***

Student #1


Describe the research of Carvallo and Gabrel (2006) which was designed to gain evidence regarding whether or not people have the need to affiliate with others. What were the strengths and weaknesses of this research? Please tie your analysis of this article to theory from your course materials.


The Carvallo and Gabriel (2006) research proved self-esteem and social effect may alter the sense of self to become higher in all individuals; including those with dismissive attachment styles. The need to belong theory remained true- all humans need social connections (Carvallo and Gabriel, 2006, p. 697). The need to belong is universal but is also held on different terms of attributions.

We all have a need for cognition and analyze all social scenarios fully (Saylor Foundtion, 2014, p. 37). However, some individuals process the scenario more thoughtfully than others and this encompasses casual attributions overall. Those with high cognition tend to be more social and enjoy engaging with others and more interested in getting to know people compared to people with low cognition.

High cognition based their self worth more on social interactions and connections with others. While those with lower cognition (dismissive attachment styles) tend to base their self-worth on personal achievements, and self-accomplishment. Both interpersonal connections and self-accomplishments are involving what others perceive of oneself. However, those with dismissive attachment style tend to care less of what others think of them and possibly missed out on the opportunity to grow a need to fit in with others. Another theory is the person may be more sensitive as compared to others, thus affecting their social skills (Carvallo, and Gabriel, 2006).

Carvallo and Gabriel assumed removing the fear of intimacy would create motivation (Carvallo and Gabriel, 2006) among the studies which would create a desire on all levels to connect to others. Instead, their desire remained self-serving. The patients remained to see themselves in a positive light regardless of the action (Saylor Foundation, 2014, p. 37).

A correspondence bias also (a.k.a the fundamental attribution error) took place by overlooking the impact of the situations presented to the persons being studied. Anyone will gain more esteem knowing the outcome is positive. Yet, the levels and personal attributes were not taken into consideration within the peer group (Saylor Foundation, 2014, p. 33).

The placement of excessive emphasis on raising esteem through positive emotions created an actor-observer difference. The studies of those with dismissing avoidant style were already expected to have traits which would always be less than positively ranked to the higher optimistic studies. There was bias from the researchers and no true ranking of degrees of the rise of esteem.

Nowhere else to go but up when a person is shown they did nothing yet gained high feedback in return as an outcome. The research did not have consistency information. More variations of tests on different levels embracing distinctiveness would have helped. Then one could conclude consensus of the information (Saylor Foundation, 2014, p. 31) and prove the patients’ behavior of attribution was indeed improved.

Student #2


Discuss what is meant by social norms and describe how social norms contribute to conformity. What social norms do you live by that make you conform?


Social norms are followed by people to help us do what is expected of us. They help guide us in the right direction to achieve a good social status. Social norms may vary depending on the geographical location we are in and the people around us. It is important to be able to know what is expected to avoid a misunderstanding and being disrespectful without even knowing. We follow these social rules to be liked and feel like we belong to a group.

Once in a group, we don’t have to work as hard if we have people to help and rely on. We make choices based on the opinions of others not just what we believe. Sometimes we are not sure of the right answer or we simply do not want to be the odd ball because we are afraid of being different. “Normative conformity” is when people do things due to what others may think out of fear of rejection (Saylor, 2014, p. 7). People may say or do things to belong but will not change their “private conformity” because they are simply behaving that way to be liked which is “public conformity” (Saylor, 2014, p. 7).

Social norms that make me conform are mainly those that keep me out of trouble and that make me look good. For example, I wear my uniform to work, show up on time, and complete all tasks assigned in an orderly manner. When going out places I wear clothes for that encounter like waterproof attire to go snowboarding, sandals to the beach, nice dress to a ball, helmet on a bike, and simply clothes that match to what others are wearing. I care for my family, help, and respect others. I follow the rules set by those in charge like my parents at one time and now my supervisor as well as the law. All because I want to fit in, be liked, and be seen as a good person.


References (Attached)

Carvallo, M., & Gabriel, S. (2006). No Man Is an Island: The Need to Belong and Dismissing Avoidant Attachment Style. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(5), 697- 709. doi:10.1177/0146167205285451

Saylor Foundation. (2014). Principles of social psychology. Retrieved on February 24, 2019, from

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