new ideas in the modern middle east

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How did intellectuals grapple with the dramatic changes they witnessed in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries? To what extent did they draw on indigenous intellectual traditions and foreign traditions? Did intellectuals simply adopt Western ideas or did they adapt these ideas to local circumstances?

please use one of these texts to answer the question.(no more than 100)

Gelvin, The Modern Middle East, Ch. 8 (texts by Tahtawi and Kemal)

Gelvin, The Modern Middle East, Chs. 9-10 (texts by Abduh and Shaarawi)

and a reply to this post (no more than 75 words)

There were intellectual and religious movements that were indirect responses to the dramatic changes of the 19th and 20th century. Integration, peripheralization and defensive developmentalism all altered the ways of life of the intellectual socioeconomic class. The start of religious change began amongst the people within the Persian Government since the mid-19th century, as early as 1844. As mentioned in Chapter 8, the Persian Government executed a merchant for claiming he was the bab (gate). The government saw fault in his claim and his following because of how untraditional it was. Challenges to religion like this happened throughout the Middle East during this era.

also an answer to this(no more than 100 words):

How did the Great War allow the rethinking of political community and forms of belonging? How did the formation of the Middle East state system affect people’s daily lives?

using one of these texts:

Gelvin, The Modern Middle East, Chs. 11-12 (Arab Soldier in Ottoman Army and Resolution of Syrian General Congress)

Burke/Yaghoubian, Struggle and Survival, Chs. 10, 11, 12, and 13

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