this is the question :Prepare a briefing of a case study that involved specific biologic pathogens. It should include details on the adversary tactic, emergency services response, and lessons learned associated with the response.
The Threat: Biological Agent.
Biological pathogens are bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic organisms that cause disease in humans,plants, and animals. Human exposure to these agents may occur through inhalation, skin (cutaneous)exposure, or ingestion of contaminated food or water. In recent years, international concern has increased about the deliberate use of certain pathogens or biological products by terrorists to influence the conduct of government or to intimidate or coerce a civilian population.
As was learned in the spring of 2003, epidemics resulting from emerging infectious diseases like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) can cause widespread civil panic and conditions similar to a bioterrorist event. Effective response to a disease outbreak (natural or intended) depends on rapid identification of the causative agent and specific diagnosis.
To enhance detection and treatment capabilities, physicians and other health professionals in acute care settings should be familiar with the clinical manifestations, diagnostic techniques, isolation precautions, treatment, and prophylaxis for likely causative agents (eg, smallpox,pneumonic plague, anthrax, viral hemorrhagic fevers). For some of these agents, delay in medical response could result in a potentially devastating number of casualties.
To mitigate such consequences, early identification and intervention are imperative. Front-line physicians must have an increased level of suspicion regarding the possible intentional use of biologic agents as well as an increased sensitivity to reporting those suspicions to public health authorities, who, in turn, must be willing to evaluate a predictable increase in false-positive reports.
Clinicians should report noticeable increases in unusual illnesses, symptom complexes, or disease patterns (even without definitive diagnosis) to public health authorities. Prompt reporting of unusual patterns of illness can allow public health officials to initiate an epidemiologic investigation earlier than would be possible if the report awaited definitive etiologic diagnosis.
Medical response efforts also require coordination and planning with emergency management agencies, law enforcement, health care facilities, and social services agencies. Health care agencies should ensure that physicians know whom to call with reports of suspicious cases and clusters of infectious diseases, and should work to build a good relationship with the local medical community.
Resource integration is absolutely necessary to establish adequate capacity to initiate rapid investigation of an outbreak, to educate the public, to begin mass distribution of antibiotics and vaccines, to ensure mass medical care, and to control public anger and fear. The following resources provide quick access to current information on preparing for a biological emergency, management of infected persons, hazard assessment, health effects, and accessing emergency assistance.
They are intended to help physicians and other health care professionals recognize signs and symptoms of potential infectious disease threats and the important need to notify appropriate authorities.
Â© 2005, American Medical Association.
Howard: 2.4 and 2.6
Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare (1997) – Publisher: Department of the Army, Office of The Surgeon General, Borden Institute. 1997: 721 p.; ill. Ch2
The Global Threat of New and Reemerging Infectious Diseases: Authors: Jennifer Brower, Peter Chalk (To access this Chapter, check in Topics of Study)
Chapter 12 New.doc
Addicott, Jeffrey. Responses to Bioterrorism and the Legal Ramifications (Ch.12) Terrorism Law: Materials, Cases, Comments. 4th Edition. Lawyers and Judges Publishing Company, Inc. Arizona, 2007.bioterror_israel.pdf and week_2_biologics.pdf