The written research proposal will be created based on a narrowly defined aspect of the topic selected in Week One. A research proposal is a detailed plan for a specific study to be conducted at a fut

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The written research proposal will be created based on a narrowly defined aspect of the topic selected in Week One. A research proposal is a detailed plan for a specific study to be conducted at a future time. It is the document which potential researchers typically submit to an institutional review board (IRB) for ethical review and approval, and/or to funding agencies to secure financial support for a research effort. Because it is a plan for research which has not yet been conducted, the Methods section should be written in the future tense and should not contain any hypothetical results. The paper must address all of the components required in the Methods section of a research proposal. The following actions must be completed.

  • State the research question and/or hypothesis.
  • Briefly compare the characteristics of the major research paradigms used in previous studies on the chosen topic. Introduce the specific approach (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods), research design, sampling strategy, data collection procedures, and data analysis techniques to be used in this study. Provide a short explanation as to why the selected procedures are more feasible than other alternatives for the research topic.
  • Describe any relevant variables, measures, and statistical tests.
  • Apply ethical principles and professional standards to the proposed psychological research. Provide an analysis of any ethical issues that may arise and explain how these issues will be resolved.

The following headings for the required sections and subsections must appear in the paper. In accordance with APA style, all references listed must be cited in the text of the paper.

  • Introduction
    • Introduce the research topic, explain why it is important, and present an appropriately and narrowly defined research question and/or hypothesis.

  • Literature Review
    • Evaluate the published research on the chosen topic including a minimum of three peer-reviewed articles. Summarize the current state of knowledge on the topic, making reference to the findings of previous research studies. Briefly mention the research methods that have previously been used to study the topic. State whether the proposed study is a replication of a previous study or a new approach employing methods that have not been used before. Be sure to properly cite all sources in APA style.

  • Methods

    • Design –

      Create a feasible research design that incorporates appropriate methods to address the topic. Indicate whether the approach of the proposed study is qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods. Identify the specific research design, and indicate whether it is experimental or non-experimental. Evaluate the chosen design and explain why this design is feasible and appropriate for the topic and how it will provide the information needed to answer the research question. Cite sources on research methodology to support these choices. Include a minimum of two peer-reviewed sources.

    • Participants –

      Identify and describe the sampling strategy to be used to recruit participants for the study. Estimate the number of participants needed, and explain why this sampling method is appropriate for the research design and approach.

    • Procedure/Measures –

      Apply the scientific method by describing the steps to be taken in carrying out the study. Identify any test, questionnaire, or measurement instrument to be utilized. If an existing published instrument will be employed, briefly describe it and cite the source. If an original questionnaire, survey, or test will be created for the project, describe the types of information that will be collected with it and explain how the validity and reliability of the instrument will be established. If such an instrument will not be used, describe how the data will be collected for the study.

    • Data Analysis –

      Describe the statistical techniques (if quantitative) or the analysis procedure (if qualitative) to be used to analyze the data. Cite at least one peer-reviewed source on the chosen analysis technique.

    • Ethical Issues –

      Analyze the impact of ethical concerns on the proposed study, such as confidentiality, deception, informed consent, potential harm to participants, conflict of interest, IRB approval, etc. After analyzing the ethical issues that apply to the project, indicate what will be done to handle these concerns.

  • Conclusion
    • Briefly summarize the major points of the paper and reiterate why the proposed study is needed.

The Research Proposal

  • Must be six to eight double-spaced pages (excluding title page and references page) in length and formatted according to APA style
  • Must include a title page with the following:

    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought and provide a thorough explanation of all required issues.
  • Must utilize a minimum of six peer-reviewed sources
  • Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the
  • Attaches is the assignments from week one -four.
  • Will discuss any additional details and references

The written research proposal will be created based on a narrowly defined aspect of the topic selected in Week One. A research proposal is a detailed plan for a specific study to be conducted at a fut
Running head: DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY IN CHILDREN 0 Developmental Disability in Children Heather Yant PSY 635 Research Design and MethodsInstructor: Mary Kraft 3/24/18 Developmental Disability in Children Developmental disability or disorders in children include early developmental disabilities, neurodevelopmental disorders in children, autism spectrum disorders, genetic disorders, dyslexia, brain impairments activity, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders(ADHD). Learning and communication disabilities, cerebral palsy, language impairments, vision impairments and mental disabilities (Wong, Odom, Hume, Cox, Fettig, Kucharczyk, & Schultz, 2015). These disorders exhibit a wide range of psychological and physical deficit in children. The purpose of conducting this research on developmental disability in children is to examine the importance of the topic to the field of psychology and how the issue will be of concern to my future career. Long ago, a developmental disability in children was a foreign concept because people had not embraced research but now people know the influence of time and genetics makes up for child life. An upcoming psychologist working in the field developmental disability may fail to recognize how disability concepts and developmental changes relate to a child developmental disability. The study about the psychological process in children and disorders involved in a child life help psychologist know how to differentiate the methods from one child to the other and how those process or disability are influenced by time. Additionally, a study on child development and disability helps child psychologists in understanding the concepts and be able to work with children. Child psychologists will be able to evaluate a child for development delays, signs of autism spectrum disorders and other disorders that may affect child development. There are varieties of researchers conducted by a different psychologist in this area of developmental disability whereby some scholar concentrate on child learning disability while other focus on neurodevelopmental impairment and other disorder relating to developmental disability in a child. A journal of autism and development disorder explains maternal parenting behaviors and child behaviors problem in families of a child and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. This scholar work was conducted by a variety of authors in collaboration with parenting and special education units, at University of Leuven (KU Leuven), and autism research. The results of the research indicate that mothers of children with ASD report significant lower scores on rule and disciplines, but they record higher score on positive parenting. This is because children with autism developmental disorder have a problem in communicating directly with each other. Moreover, the signs of autism include delayed learning of language, difficulty making eye contact or holding a conversation, as well as difficulty with executive functioning which relates to reasoning and planning. Additional signs or symptoms consist of narrow, or intense interest, poor motors skills and sensory sensitivities. Parents for these children have to train their children on some of the methods of developing practical communication skills. Additionally, the research outlined other concepts outlined in the study such as stimulating development and adapting the environment. Besides, the journal further explains variances in ages on how it relates to parenting behaviors in ASD versus control groups. The area of focus in this article was on the concrete, observable parenting behaviors and distinguished parenting styles. Parenting styles or parenting behaviors plays a critical role in how influences developmental disability in children. Parenting styles tend to focus on family climate, and it is built on combination of parenting styles whereas parental dimension focuses on elementary behaviors. Parenting support entails behaviors such as acceptance, positive effects, and involvement. Parental control measures as used by parenting of children with ASD include a behavioral control which attempts to regulate the child’s behavior through monitoring the behavioral setting. The research provides a multiples perspective on parenting behavior’s whereby the research focused on expanding the knowledge on the areas because little research was made focusing on concrete parenting in families of children with ASD (Maljaars, Boonen, Lambrechts, Van Leeuwen, & Noens, 2014). Parents raising a child with ASD have to deal with challenges that other parents with healthy children who are developing normally do not. The authors of the article used various methods to arrive at their conclusion whereby they based their analysis on 989 Dutch- speaking families. Additionally, parts of Belgium and the Netherlands participated in this study. The research based on sample size 552 against suspected sample size of 437 (Maljaars, Boonen, Lambrechts, Van Leeuwen, & Noens, 2014). The parents through questionnaires they indicated how they received diagnosis and their year’s diagnosis was available. The research excluded children with intellectual disability of less 70 and children involved in the research were between 6 and 18 years old. The authors reached parents of children with ASD through a newsletter and via the email link to allow the participants to conduct their research. Later the research used IBM SPSS statistic –Manova to evaluate the results. The research methods used include qualitative research design which consists of a questionnaire. The questionnaires should have an accurate question and precise to the point, arranged adequately, arranged logically, short and straightforward among many other features. The study on actual parenting behaviors on children with ASD offers an understanding on the applicability of the research on the practical ways of handling problem of ASD in children and various problem parents faces while controlling and providing parenting support to their children as compared to those parents who have healthy children. References Abidin, R. R. (1990). Parenting stress index-short form (p. 118). Charlottesville, VA: Pediatric Psychology Press. Maljaars, J., Boonen, H., Lambrechts, G., Van Leeuwen, K., & Noens, I. (2014). Maternal parenting behavior and child behavior problems in families of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(3), 501-512. Wong, C., Odom, S. L., Hume, K. A., Cox, A. W., Fettig, A., Kucharczyk, S., … & Schultz, T. R. (2015). Evidence-based practices for children, youth, and young adults with autism spectrum disorder: A comprehensive review. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(7), 1951-1966.
The written research proposal will be created based on a narrowly defined aspect of the topic selected in Week One. A research proposal is a detailed plan for a specific study to be conducted at a fut
Running head: EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH STUDY 0 Experimental Research Study Heather Yant PSY 635 Research Design and MethodsInstructor: Mary Kraft 4/1/18 Experimental Research Study Summary of the experimental research study: The experimental research study is based on identifying evidence-based, focused intervention practices for children and youth with autism spectrum disorders. The research study will provide intervention and treatments for patients who may be affected by this disorder. The researchers based their preference of interruption on empirical evidence of value. Moreover, the research literature provides sources in identifying intervention and therapy that can promote a beneficial outcome for children, youth, adolescents with ASD and families (Wong, Odom, Hume, Cox, Fettig, Kucharczyk, & Schultz, 2015). Hypotheses summary: The hypothesis based on two types of practices that is comprehensive treatments model and focused intervention model. Comprehensive treatments model (CTMs) consists of a set of practice ordered around a conceptual structure. The goals of the model help in achieving broad learning or developmental impact on the core deficits of ASD. Comprehensive treatment model has not been proved to be efficient, but the efficiency of the study is currently in progress (Wong, Odom, Hume, Cox, Fettig, Kucharczyk, & Schultz, 2015). The second model includes focused intervention. This practice addresses the issues of ASD by single skill or goal of a student with ASD. The focused intervention is done through discrete trial teaching, pivot response training, prompting and video modeling. The concentrated intervention is a stepping block of educational and teaching for children, youth and adolescents with ASD. Sampling strategy The sampling strategy includes population sampling whereby the research include participant whose age was birth to 22 years of age. The participants having autism spectrum disorders (ASD), autism, Asperger syndrome, pervasive development developmental disorder, pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified or high functioning autism. The participant also included individuals with intellectual disability, and hereditary syndromes such as Retts, fragile X or Down syndrome also incorporated in the research. The individuals incorporated in the study were examined in a study on their behaviors, developmental and education in nature. The research design: The research employed experimental group design, quasi-experimental design or SCD to test the effectiveness of focused practices. Besides, the research additional designs used randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental design (QED) or regression discontinuity design (RDD) that compares the experimental /treatments group receiving the intervention. The sample size for research included 38 individual who randomly examined through a controlled trial. The multiple baseline designs applied to a sample size of 183 participants. Results of the study: The study expands and enhances on the previous reviews of the published writings conducted five years. The experimental research was useful in examining the impact of a focused intervention. The researcher based their research on features of AS, social communication, and behaviors that challenge these individuals. Attention to play and joint were reported in a substantial number of research in this preliminary study review. School fluency and the pre-academic outcome were also observed in some studies conducted which reflected that the participant used for the research most are in the elementary school age. The research on adult revealed that there was minimal occurrence adolescent with vocational skills and mental health. The research was based on the several studies conducted on adolescents and young adults. Approximately, twenty-seven studies conducted on children, youth with ASD revealed that the research meets the evidence-based criteria (Wong, Odom, Hume, Cox, Fettig, Kucharczyk, & Schultz, 2015). Evidence-based standards consist of intervention that is fundamentally applied on behavioral analysis, assessments, and analytic techniques that are based on the intervention and combination of primarily behavioral practices used in routine and systematic that fit together as replicable procedures. Several intervention methods were applied such as parent-implemented intervention, peer-mediated intervention, and instruction, technology –aided intervention. The technology supported outcomes of intervention for a student with ASD were categorized differently. The technology-aided instruction included computers aided instruction and speech generating devices. Evaluation of the experimental research study, threats and Ethics: The research in this exploratory study focused their research on intervention measures which can be applied children and youths with ASD. The research was based on sampling children and youth below 22 years of age. Several statistical methods applied including regression and the results reveal the majority of the research conducted was based on children. To conclude the experimental study, the researcher faces a variety of limitation, for example, the analysis did not include a study conducted in 1990. The study conducted in 1990 was of more essence and could provide fair practices. The time limit is another challenge because the researchers were not able to do a review of an extensive database which involves a national set of the reviewer. The research implied the older individual with ASD because it could not identify EBPs (Evidence-based Practices) in adults with ASD (Wong, Odom, Hume, Cox, Fettig, Kucharczyk, & Schultz, 2015). The authors were able to handle some of the threat to research such as biases on research by including only peer review sources which comprises of a variety of knowledge from different scholars. The authors applied ethical principles in the study by adding research conducted by a range of researchers and reviewed by other experts in the field. This action ensures the information presented was accurate and not biased. Conclusion: Professionals and teachers can apply the evidence-based approach to improve speech for children and youth with ASD by utilizing technologically aided intervention. The technology aided intervention is comprised of computer-aided instruction and speech generating device. The use of technology is useful in cognitive behavioral intervention, exercise, and imitating script, designed or structured play. The experimental research was useful and could be relied upon by other researchers who need to expand the research on the same. The limitation faced by the researchers includes inadequate time to review the database to have effective and reliable information which can be used as intervention practices for children. References Wong, C., Odom, S. L., Hume, K. A., Cox, A. W., Fettig, A., Kucharczyk, S., … & Schultz, T. R. (2015). Evidence-based practices for children, youth, and young adults with autism spectrum disorder: A comprehensive review. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(7), 1951-1966. Smith, T., & Iadarola, S. (2015). Evidence base update for autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44(6), 897-922.
The written research proposal will be created based on a narrowly defined aspect of the topic selected in Week One. A research proposal is a detailed plan for a specific study to be conducted at a fut
Running head: THE RESEARCH AND CRITIQUES A QUALITATIVE STUDY 0 The Research and Critique a Qualitative Study Heather Yant PSY 635 Research Design and MethodsInstructor: Mary Kraft 4/15/18 The Research and Critique a Qualitative Study ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a problem in social and communicative function and restricted patterns of behaviors with onset in the early developmental period. Anorexia nervosa usually develops during adolescence or early adulthood. Kinnaird, Norton, & Tchanturia, (2017) used a quantitative study to evaluate anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder comorbidity. The method utilized in this qualitative study include an interview with the focus group. Researcher spends more time designing interview question designed to generate participant’s perspectives about ideas, opinions, and experiences. The sample size utilized by clinician conducting qualitative research on anorexia nervosa and autism disorder comorbidity include is 9. Observation of the study was performed using thematic analysis. A recent study of individuals with anorexia and ASD identified trait with longstanding neurodevelopmental difficulties, confirming a substantial overlap in some individual between the two disorders. The research study will address several areas about how clinician would react if the patients under research are said to have anorexia or ASD traits. Additionally, the analysis will contain specific issues that clinician faces when treating, comorbid ASD and AN. Finally, the research study will outline treatment techniques that are effective when managing comorbid ASD and AN. The method of the research takes on includes qualitative designs employ a semi-structured interview which lets the therapist encounter managing people with comorbid anorexia and ASD. Method of study Semi-structured interview methods combine a predetermined set of question that arises out of the discussion which helps the clinician to understand the concepts better or a better way of exploring particular themes or response further. The study was approved by South London and Maudsley NHS trust governance committee. The individuals in this qualitative research came and chosen or recruited from South London NHS Foundation Trust Eating disorder services outpatients and daycare options (Kinnaird, Norton, & Tchanturia, 2017). All the participants in the research were working with outpatients team treating adults with EDs. Ten clinicians invited to patriciate, only nine agreed. One did not feel comfortable discussing the topic. Therefore, was not included in the sample size. The clinician who took part in the research study had wide ranges of experiences in the clinical matters. The group used sample size composed of female clinicians. The participants were supposed to offer their consents before the research began. Ethical standards in psychology require the researcher to ask the individual under study the permission to proceed with the investigation. The participants should be of the ages needed to grant consents. Failure to observe this procedure research may be said to have violated the ethical standards. The permission given in this case was in the form of writing which can be preserved as evidence, in fact, one of the participants happens to say she was not requested or informed about the research. The interview was informed of a semi-structured open question. Semi-structured question is those question which may arise during the discussion therefore not all question are written as in structured form. The interview was conducted by two individuals; one had a rich background in nursing and EDs while the other was a team leader for the outpatients ED team. The interview approximately ttok 20 minutes and no repeat interview were conducted (Kinnaird, Norton, & Tchanturia, 2017). The interviews audio recorded and transcribed. The information established the participants was removed at the point of inscription. The interviewer also included some field notes while gathering data. The audio recordings did not get returned to the indidvuals. Data analysis The data collected was analyzed using thematic analysis which aims at identifying relevant patterns in the data. The authors read the data to compare familiarity with the data. The data later interpreted and coded line by line (Kinnaird, Norton, & Tchanturia, 2017). The coding frame was based on the therapist perception, and it was examined and put into keys themes, and summarized in the results section. The researchers later met, to check whether the issues correlate. Findings: The participants who reveal to answer a question the way it was supposed to be solved were retained in the analysis. The research revealed that the participant lack confidence or experiences dealing with issues of ASD. Sixty Percent of the participants admit that they lack experience or confidence in dealing with ASD. The participants show that when dealing with matters of ASD, the first reaction is to look for more information on the subjects through an online platform, books, clinicians also represented getting additonal help from experienced senior members of the treatment team. The research indicates that all participants were not sure who to ask for more information about the case. Conclusion: The qualitative research fails to prove whether clinicians have a problem while assessing patients with comorbid AN and ASD. The results reveal that treatments modification appears to be the results of therapist experiences and knowledge instead of representing standardized method. A more standard approach would help in offering adequate treatment to the patients especially to a clinician who are lack experiences on the field. Evaluation of published qualitative research Systematic mix studies review combined data and results across quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods. The researcher should know how to integrate the quantitative and qualitative mixed methods to achieve adequate results. The researcher should synthesize results across a series of paper using different ways rather than using single methods paper. The researcher should be well knowledgeable while entering to this field of research and should be ready to explore the entrant literature systematically to gain a comprehensive understanding of the area (Frantzen, & Fetters, 2016). The researcher in this case of evaluating anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder comorbidity used only one method of conducting research, but the results were more effective because the participants in the group sampling all had a rich background in nursing. Therefore, the researcher was analyzing other clinicians view about ASD to identify where the problem lies while offering effective treatments method. Potential biases and ethical issues The researcher did not address all bias because the research was conducted including only female clinician. Therefore, the researcher failed to include some men clinician so that the results may not be biased. According to the results of the researcher, one can conclude that because all participants where female then it means that all female clinicians are not confident on whatever methods to use while faced with ASD but men can figure out a solution when faced with the same problem. On the other hand, the researcher observed all ethical measures needed to be put in place by ensuring all participants have offered their consents before participating in the research. Also, the researcher did not include the name of the participant while recording the audio; this means that the researcher acted by ethical requirements.. Reference Kinnaird, E., Norton, C., & Tchanturia, K. (2017). Clinicians’ views on working with anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder comorbidity: a qualitative study. BMC Psychiatry, 17(1), 292. Frantzen, K. K., & Fetters, M. D. (2016). Meta-integration for synthesizing data in a systematic mixed studies review: insights from research on autism spectrum disorder. Quality & Quantity, 50(5), 2251-2277. Pope, K. S., & Vetter, V. A. (1992). Ethical dilemmas encountered by members of the American Psychological Association: A national survey. American Psychologist, 47(3), 397.
The written research proposal will be created based on a narrowly defined aspect of the topic selected in Week One. A research proposal is a detailed plan for a specific study to be conducted at a fut
Running head: RESEARCH METHODS LITERATURE REVIEW 0 Research Methods Literature Review Heather Yant PSY 635 Research Design and MethodsInstructor: Mary Kraft 4/8/18 Research Methods Literature Review Qualitative and quantitative research design encountered in the course There are many research methods encountered in this course so far. Those research methods include interaction between the researchers and individual who are being studied. For example, the first article sample children with autism disorders and availed a questionnaire for parents. The in-depth interview was conducted to evaluate the methodology used by many parents with children suffering from autism disorders. Several statistical methods were employed to arrive at the data used in conducting sample size and regression analysis. Other quantitative methods include experimental research study method used to identifying evidence-based, focused intervention practices for children and youth with autism spectrum disorders. Finally, other methods include employed experimental group design, quasi-experimental design. Brief Explanation of developmental disorders in children: Developmental disability or disorders in children include early developmental disabilities, neurodevelopmental disorders in children, autism spectrum disorders, genetic disorders, dyslexia, brain impairments activity, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders(ADHD), Learning and communication disabilities, cerebral palsy, language impairments, vision impairments and mental disabilities(Kauffman, 1997).These disorders exhibit a wide range of psychological and physical deficit in children. Study of children disorder is essential because it equips psychologist with relevant knowledge that can be applied in analyzing children disability. Also, the research offers some insights of various changes experience in small children and practical measures that can be used to facilitate effective parenting methods. Applying scientific Method: Specific research question and hypothesis for the Topic The scientific methods is a standard way of making an observation, gathering information data, forming theories, testing prediction and interpreting results. The scientific method used study topic of language development in children and effect or sensory deprivation on behavior. The research encompasses the scientific, testable models and methods to conduct the investigation (Vorobyeva, & Ermakov, 2015). Compelling scientific research includes the following terms which are used to explain the topic under discussion. The conditions include participants, sample, and population. Participants are individuals who take part in the research. An example consists of a collection of participants in the case observation and community includes a selection of participants grouped as a sample population. The purpose of the research is to find ways of measuring and describing behavior, to understand why, when, how events occur and lastly the research will entail applying knowledge to solve the real world problem. The research method involved in this case includes observational research, the pretest-posttest control group, ethnography and explanatory. Observation methods The observation method is categorized into two that is naturalistic observation and laboratory observation. The observation method is applied when researchers view participants’ in their natural environment. The laboratory observation can be used to see in a laboratory setting and results acquired said to be more meaningful because of the research that those observed in naturalistic observation. The naturalistic observation results can be more applied in a real-time setting that laboratory results. The research questions which may arise include the following, first, “how is this method used? This method will help in explaining some symptom observed in children experiencing a developmental disability. Pretest-posttest control group Pretest-posttest design is an experiment conducted in an experiment before and after treatment. Pre-test post control group design is called the classic controlled experimental design. This method works by assigning participants treatments group and buy administering pre-test to the treatments group. This research method will help to examine and explain the results of the research method. Ethnography Ethnography is applied to study culture and the approach used includes participant’s observation. These methods are no preset limiting of what will be observed in developmental disability in children. Explanatory Explanatory research is applied to a problem which was not well researched before, demand priorities generate operational definition and provide a better-researched model. This method is used to examine an issue which was not studied previously in depth. Evaluation of chosen peer-reviewed articles The peer review article about Administering Quantitative Instruments with Qualitative Interview approach authored by Rebecca explains how collecting quantitative data via psychometrically sound quantitative instrument during the qualitative interview process enhances interpretation by helping contextualize qualitative finding. The counselors use both quantitative and qualitative assessments in practices. This article demonstrates that collecting quantitative data via psychometrically sound quantitative instruments enhances interpretation by helping the researcher better contextualize qualitative finding. The research offers some insights into the concepts of mixed methods interview. The methods used in these articles will be useful in producing defensible and usable research finding. The second peer-reviewed article authored by John List, Sally Sadoff and Mathis Wagner discussed some simple rules of thumb for optimal experimental design. The report outlines experimental design that provides several simple rules of thumb that researchers can apply to improve the efficiency of the experimental design. The experimental design method discussed in this article help researcher in maximizing the variance of the treatments variable and for adjusting the sample to account for variance heterogeneity. The third peer-reviewed article is about the qualitative and mixed method in social work knowledge. The author of the article includes Deborah K. Padgett. This article discusses some quantitative method such as ethnography and field observation (Padgett, 2009). The quantitative approach outlined in this article may be useful to the researcher because the researcher will be able to use naturalistic observation method to observe symptom from children with developmental disability. The results of the observation will be applied in giving parents of the children effective parental methods that will improve the child life by streamlining the child speech and other variables. The ethnography research method is applied in researching culture, and the research is based sampling the participant on evaluating them about the developmental disability in children. The fourth peer-reviewed articles discuss ten steps for conceptualizing and consulting qualitative research studies in a pragmatically unique manner. Ronal J. Chenail authored this article. The qualitative researcher can take a pathway of pragmatic curiosity by exploring their research interests and possible design and methodology choices to create studies that allow the researcher to peruse their investigative curiosities (Chenail, 2011). The step outlined in this article helps the researcher conduct the study that is responsive to research goal, objectives and defendable to criteria of quality and critic of utility. Therefore this article offers research a clear guideline that can be used to conduct an investigation that is successful and accurate. Compare and contrast the paradigms and identifying a best-fit approach The four research paradigms include positivism, interpretivist; critical and pragmatic are explained in the four research methods. A model is described as a belief or theory that helps to guide the things or to obtain sets of practice. To evaluate the structure of inquiry, the researchers and the methodological choices are employed. In each research study, an investigation is done by adopting the particular paradigm of inquiry. In observation method, for example, several steps are applied to identify sample groups on which to conduct our observation research. Other ways also follow a particular procedure before final results are achieved. As a professional researcher, I will apply assessments tools and critical thinking as well as pragmatic to choose the best research tool which will offer valid and accurate results. References Frels, R. K., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2013). Administering quantitative instruments with qualitative interviews: A mixed research approach. Journal of Counseling & Development, 91(2), 184-194. list, J. A., Sadoff, S., & Wagner, M. (2011). So you want to run an experiment, now what? Some simple rules of thumb for optimal experimental design. Experimental Economics, 14(4), 439. Padgett, D. K. (2009). Guest editorial: Qualitative and mixed methods in social work knowledge development. Social Work, 54(2), 101-105. Chenail, R. J. (2011). Ten steps for conceptualizing and conducting qualitative research studies in a pragmatically curious manner. The Qualitative Report, 16(6), 1713. Kauffman, J. M. (1997). Characteristics of emotional and behavioral disorders of children and youth. Merrill/Prentice Hall, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Vorobyeva, E., & Ermakov, P. (2015). Training of psychology students in the scientific methods of research. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 191, 2699-2703.

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