Race & Ethnicity

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My presentation was reviewed and I was asked to make some changes but need help and guidance in the areas below.

-Invention of thanksgiving: Are these your original thoughts on the reading…? Provide specificity in your review because you offer no evidence as such and you do not link in to the purpose of the presentation

-you have not brought the discussion up to date. Majority of your sources are old and you need to have a solid article in to bring the discussion up to the present.

– I see no conclusion or no evidence of current circumstances no indication of whether your “arguments in the Introduction” or this movement is or is not successful.

Presented by: Sharonne Hamilton

Race and Ethnicity


Race and ethnicity are frequently utilized terms in contemporary society. These concepts pertain to history, social interaction, and an individual’s overall composition. Race refers to differences in facial and physical traits, while ethnicity refers to diverse social groups with specific cultures. Races are distinguished by common heritage or physical traits, while ethnicity is influenced by history and social experiences. We all either experience or have known someone to have experienced issues with race and ethnicity of themselves or others.

Prejudice and Discrimination births Racism

Many of us don’t realize it, yet we can be prejudiced and stereotyped without even realizing it since it’s deeply rooted in our culture. Prejudice can be demonstrated by basing your beliefs, opinions, and attitudes about another race or group on personal experience. For example, in Tyler Perry movies, a “mad black woman” is what some people expect to see when a woman is furious.

Stereotypical thinking can be learned by watching movies, reading books, or simply listening to other people’s opinions. We can observe throughout history how prejudice can lead to discrimination. Discrimination is the act of being unfair to another person because of their thoughts, which can be based on their age, skin color, religion, health status, or nearly any other attribute. Individual and institutional discrimination are two types of discrimination. Racism arises when prejudiced thinking and discriminating deeds coexist.

Historical and Cultural Racism

Native Americans, often known as “Indigenous People,” should be honored for their contributions and resilience despite years of being forcibly removed from ancestral lands, displaced, assimilated, banned from performing many sacred ceremonies, and otherwise harmed but instead their paraded around as mascots within schools and American sport teams.

Economic imbalance or social disadvantage induced by prior racism is referred to as historical racism. Cultural racism arises when a society’s culture is constructed on the belief that one or more races are inferior.

Hundreds Of Schools Are Still Using Native Americans As Team Mascots Article Review

After decades of protest and activism Native Americans continue to grapple with social issues such as discrimination, prejudice, and stereotype perpetuation through the use of Native American mascots in schools and sports teams, as evidenced by Hope Allchin’s article “Hundreds of Schools Are Still Using Native Americans As Team Mascots.”

Native Americans face colorism through the perpetuation of stereotypical images in Native American mascots. These mascots often depict one-dimensional and oversimplified portrayals of Native Americans, which can contribute to the reinforcement of harmful stereotypes. By reducing the diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds within the Native American community to these caricatures, the mascots indirectly perpetuate colorism.

We can get an understanding as of how Native Americans are still discriminated throughout educational settings. Despite growing awareness and criticism, 1,232 high schools continue to use Native American team names and mascots, such as “Indians” and “Chiefs.” This persistence of Native American mascots in educational institutions highlights the systemic discrimination and insensitivity toward Indigenous communities. The fact that 45 schools still use the former name of the Washington Football Team, which was widely criticized for its racial slur, shows the continuation of discriminatory practices in schools.

While some states have introduced regulations to prohibit these mascots in public schools, they have often faced strong opposition. For instance, a proposed resolution in Wisconsin to remove Native mascots failed by a significant margin, indicating that racial biases persist and influence the decision-making process. Additionally, the reluctance of professional sports leagues, such as the NFL, to address the issue of Native American mascots implies that these biases are deeply rooted. While some see it as authentic representations, the use of mascots is harmful and disrespectful as this contributed to their feelings of exclusion and “otherness”.

The article “Hundreds of Schools Are Still Using Native Americans As Team Mascots” supports the idea that Native Americans use mascots to address social concerns including colorism, discrimination, and prejudice. The prolonged use of these symbols in schools, resistance to reform, and resulting damages highlight Native American communities’ ongoing difficulties.

White Privilege

Racial steering is real estate-specific institutional discrimination. This involves real estate professionals’ steering’ purchasers and renters towards or away from neighborhoods based on race or ethnicity, assuming that specific ethnicities should live in similar neighborhoods.


White privilege refers to the advantages individuals receive by being or being perceived to be a White person. Despite acknowledging disadvantages due to skin color, many White individuals resist acknowledging their own benefits until self-awareness develops. This privilege is an institutional condition, not personal, and exists regardless of individual request.

Racial Steering

Colorism can be understood as a manifestation of racial discrimination, when individuals hold the belief that certain shades of skin within a certain racial group are either superior or inferior to others.

Dishonorable Mention Review

Dishonorable Mention is a mini-HBO documentary that examines the fight to end the usage of logos, mascots, gestures, and titles that denigrate and degrade Native Americans, their history, and culture. They capture the relationship between entertainment, particularly sports, and Native American culture in this video.

The documentary explains how a term like “redskin,” which grew into a slur, became the team name of one of the world’s most famous, adored, and profitable sports organizations the “Washington Redskins”. It demonstrates how the media has portrayed Native Americans as involved in society.

Charlene Teters

Charlene Teters is a Native American artist, educator, and presenter who was born in Spokane, Washington on April 25, 1952. She belongs to the Spokane Tribe of Indians. Teters has been called the “Rosa Parks” of the Native American Mascot Movement, which challenges the usage of Native American imagery and stereotypes in sports and media.

Teeters is also a founder member of the National Coalition Against Racism in Sports and the Media, a group formed to counteract the widespread influences of mainstream media that support Native American persecution.

Billy Mills

Billy Mills was born as a member of the Oglala Sioux Tribe in South Dakota. He is also the spokesperson and co-founder of the nonprofit Running Strong for American Indian Youth. The main mission of this organization is to assist Native American communities in becoming self-sufficient, as well as to support and inspire young people to pursue their ambitions. Billy Mills speaks out against the adoption of Native American mascots, stating that society lacks awareness of Native American culture and foolishly believes that such mascots are a sort of honor.

Native American activists

Invention of Thanksgiving Review

“Invention of Thanksgiving” by Siskind gives us a historical look at the Thanksgiving holiday and how it has evolved over time to fulfill various political and social agendas. Thanksgiving was first promoted as a national holiday during the Civil War to bring the country together and give it a sense of common identity. Because most Americans do not respect Native American experiences and beliefs, the true story of Thanksgiving is virtually forgotten. It’s known to be for football games, gathering around food

Siskind’s “Invention of Thanksgiving” is a critical look at the traditional Thanksgiving story and highlights the significance of critically evaluating our traditions and narratives, and the necessity for a more precise and all-inclusive understanding of our history.

Work Cited

  • Siskind, Janet. “The Invention of Thanksgiving.” Critique of Anthropology, vol. 12, 1992, pp. 168-91
  • Dishonorable Mention 2004 HBO Sports.”Youtube, uploaded by Orinoco505, 30 Apr.2011, www.youtube.com/watch?v=d_VzREpuou4.
  • Melissa Witte. “Confederate Monuments Coming Now”. 2020, Stanford University
  • Hope Allchin. Hundreds Of Schools Are Still Using Native Americans As Team Mascots. 2020


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