paraphrase the answers that correspond to the questions

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Directions paraphrase the answers that correspond to the questions. A= answers. Make sure it is not the same.

1. Distinguish between the genome and the proteome of a cell.

A. The proteome is the entire collection of a species’ proteins, and it is larger than the genome (until one recognizes regulatory mechanisms).

2. Summarize the difference between a short tandem repeat and a transposon.

A.The short tandem repeat is when the repeated sequences are proximal to one another on the chromosomes, and the number and types of these types of repeats is different depending on the individual’s; the short tandem repeats is now a “standard method in forensics science for distinguishing one individual from another and for determining familial relationships” (252). The transposons, however, are very distinct DNA sequences that can move between and even within chromosomes, sometimes changing nearby genes or decreasing expressions akin to a regulatory gene would do.

3. Explain how the use of microarrays and bioinformatics aids in the study of genomics and proteomics

A.DNA microarrays aids in the study of genomics and proteomics because they can help determine which genes are turned on in cells organisms under specific time constraints or environmental conditions; they assist in identifying genomic mutations that make up a person’s genetic profile. This helps genomics to be compared between organisms, determine changes in genomes over time, and develop therapies for genetic diseases. Bioinformatics assista because computer technologies, softwares, and statistical methods help determine the biological information that has genomic and proteomic information within those databases for research scientists. Identifying patterns and applying such findings allow for computers to be able to find other organisms with the same sequences and further study such mutations or diseases.

From the reading of section 20.1 “Viruses, Viroids, and Prions”, answer the following:

1. Describe the two features shared by all viruses.

A.Two features that all viruses have include a nucleic acid core (genome) as well as an outer capsid composed of protein subunits.

2. List the features that viruses and prions do not have that are required to be considered living organisms.

AThey do not fossilize, have a metabolism, or respond to stimuli.

3. Distinguish between the structure of a virus and a prion.

A.Prions, which are proteins, normally exist in animals but have different structures because of their process that alters the structure from the normal protein conformation. Prions are able similar to viruses because they cannot replicate on their own and cause infections through altering a normal protein’s structure.

4. Explain from an evolutionary standpoint why it is beneficial to a virus if its host lives.

A.It is beneficial because viruses are host specific. They can only reproduce within specific organisms’ cells, and as the host cells evolve, so do the viruses. The structure of molecules in the naked capsid determines the host specificity, and the lock-and-key fit of this indicates that, from an evolutionary perspective, viruses originated after living cells since they are hypothesized to have devolved from portions of cell genomes or possibly devolved from living cells.

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