Choose one of the following topics for your initial discussion post. Remember that participation is required on a minimum of three days through 11:59 PM ET Sunday. You are required to respond to at least 2 classmates.
- Genetically modified organisms – Research various agricultural products currently on the market which have been genetically modified. Pick one to investigate further addressing the following questions/issues: What specifically has been modified with the product? How long has it been on the market? How much of the total genome has been modified? In general, is this product safe? Is there anyway to know if you are eating this product versus the “normal” version? Should consumers be told they are consuming a genetically modified product? What do you think personally about these types of products? Would your position change if you were a vegetarian or an organic gardener, or the owner of a major food chain? List at least one source from your research.
- Transgenic Animals –Research various transgenic animals. Pick one to investigate further addressing the following questions/issues: What is a transgenic animal? Which method was used to insert the foreign DNA? For what purpose was this animal “created”? Has it been successful? Is it currently being used to help humans? Also consider such aspects as animal suffering and animal rights. What if the animal contained human genes and ended up being consumed for food? Will this affect the overall genome of this creature in the wild? List at least one source from your research.
- Cloning – Research cloning. Consider the following: How is the procedure done? What’s the difference between reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning? What are the pros? What are the cons? Should it be regulated? Are there currently clones in the market now? Would a clone of a dead relative or pet have the same personality? List at least one source from your research.
Click the “Week 4 Assignment” link in the top left corner to enter the Bioethical Issues Website Recommendation Blog.
Part 1: Initial Blog Post on a Bioethical Issue
After completing this week’s reading assignment (Chapters 11, 12 & 13), select a Bioethical issue (for example, mandatory DNA fingerprinting, gene therapy trials etc.) and research it further. Find a reliable, useful website that discusses how science interacts with our daily lives.
Part 2: Blog Response post
Peruse some of the Blog entries made by your fellow classmates. Choose at least one that you found useful and comment on how the website helped you with your understanding. The comment should be 100 words minimum.
The Week 4 Assignment – Bioethical Issues Website Recommendation Blog
PART 1 RESPOND TO Ashley Covarrubias CloningThe process of generating genetically identical copy of a cell. 1.) How is the procedure done? To clone a gene you would take DNA from a living creature and put it inside a carrier like bacteria.Once the carrier reproduces the cell is cloned. You can also clone using Somatic cell nuclear transplant. to do this you would first gather DNA from animal somatic cells, then place it into an egg cell that does not contain existing DNA or a nucleus. The egg then develops into an embryo. Lastly the embryo would be implanted into a uterus to grow. 2.) What is the difference between reproductive cloning and theraputic cloning? Reproductive cloning produces copies of a whole animal usuing somatic cell transpalnt. The animals produced are genetically identical to the donor animal.While Theraputic cloning produces embryonic stem cells. These stem cells have the same DNA as the donar cell. 3.) What are the pros? Cloning has many advantages. With the use of Human cloning many people with infertilty problems or people of the same sex could have children. Theraputic Cloning could also help people by cloning stem cells to help with organ transplants, nerve problems , diabeties and more. I beleive this would be the most impactful advangtage to us humans. Diseases would have more treatment options. Reproductive cloning can prevent species from extinctsion. This has recently been done in the U.S with Elizabeth Ann a ferret. 4.) What are the cons? Cloning in general has been an ethical debate. In theraputic cloning oocytes are used. This leads to an ethical debate of how these oocytes are collected and how many they can take. Right now there is a shortage of ooytes that can be used for research. Oocytes are cells in the ovaries. The problem is that these cells are surgically removed which causes risk for the women undergoing the procedure. A common result to this is Ovarian Hyperstimulation syndrome. Kfoury, C. (2007, July 10). Therapeutic cloning: promises and issues. NCBI. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2323472/Matured, K. (n.d.). Understanding Genetics. Https://Genetics.Thetech.Org/Ask/Ask147. https://genetics.thetech.org/ask/ask147
RESPOND TO Ali Patterson Genetically Modified OrganismsPotatoes have a unique quality gene that makes them bruise when damaged. The GMO potato has been designed through a strategy for gene cutting called RNA obstruction. This hereditary designing method brings about a potato that conceals the side effects of blackspot swelling rather than showing it. The Inca Indians in Peru were quick to develop potatoes around 8,000 BC to 5,000 B.C. Then 1536 a few Spanish Conquistadors moved into Peru and took over the country, found different kinds of potatoes, and exported them to Europe(Lawrence,2016). Potatoes have been genetically modified since 1995 they were modified to resist attacks from potatoes beetles due to the introduction of Bt toxin-producing genes on the bacterium Bacillus. It is safe to eat GM potatoes there is no evidence that it is dangerous to eat for humans. GM potatoes though are potentially more likely to create two toxins that are not present in normal potatoes. Since the production and introduction of GM potatoes over 27 years ago there has been no evidence of ill effects linked to the consumption of these potatoes. There is no way to tell if a potato is genetically modified based on appearance alone. Looking at them GMO white potatoes can be recognized with a brand of bags and a logo that says reduced bruising on it. Or a brand saying fewer black spots. These branded logos are the only way to tell if it’s a modified potato. Overall I believe that a consumer should be aware that they are consuming GMO or modified products. This will help show transparency in the regulation and help satisfy consumers on FDA regulations. I think that these products like this may have long-term effects on us consumers. Time will show the long-term effects that may develop over time. Since there aren’t any dangers and the benefits from these potatoes are disease and drought-resistant which helps decrease the use of pesticides and more nutritious taste. The impacts that GMO products have in the united states show the need for these kinds of products to be made available in lower-income countries that have food production insecurities. I don’t think that my position would change since right now there are many benefits to this product. It is more essential than diverse for consumers to eat. Since these potatoes are innovative for our time this will be great for a major food chain. So vegetarian or organic gardener I probably would not be willing to consume such a product with them being modified even if it’s with good benefits.Cited Reference Genetically Modified Food Labeling: A “Right to Know”? by Lawerance O. Gostin on December 13, 2016, from The Jama Forum, https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2592487
PART 2 DNA fingerprinting NewRESPOND TO Lana Malone DNA FingerprintingDNA fingerprinting was invented in 1984 and is mainly used in legal matters and court cases. It is used to link biological evidence to a person who possibly committed a crime, identify bodies, and could help someone find their relatives and look for cures to diseases. DNA fingerprinting uses chemicals to break apart strands of DNA to find a person’s distinctive genetic make-up. In the medical field it can be used to match organ donors to people who need transplants and find diseases that have been passed down through genetics in someone’s family. There are several ways to obtain your individual DNA fingerprint such as a mouth swab, roots from hair, saliva, blood, and other bodily fluids. The sample would be treated with chemicals to separate the DNA. The DNA is cut into smaller sections using chemicals to get 5 to 10 pairs that will repeat themselves. Lab techs will mix DNA into a gel and use an electrical current to divide smaller DNA from larger ones. A dye is then added to make the DNA stand out under a UV light. These sections will be tested over and over thus making the DNA profile more precise. The DNA strips look like barcodes and can be compared to other DNA samples to find matches, such as linking a murderer to a victim at a crime scene.Word Count=226Smith, M. (n.d.). DNA fingerprinting: Purpose, procedure, and how it’s used. WebMD. https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/dna-fingerprin…