Kean University ATP and ADP Discussion Questions

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Substance One impedes the binding of NAD+ to electrons. This is important in affecting the rate of ATP production because NAD+ is an important electron carrier. In the cell, processes like glycolysis and the citric acid cycle include oxidation-reduction reactions that convert NAD+ to its protonated form, NADH. This NADH then carries electrons to the electron transport chain in the mitochondria. The electron transport chain is then involved in powering ATP synthase to create ATP that can be used for cellular energy. This cellular energy drives all the reactions in the cell and is required for the cell to survive.

If Substance One was administered, this cellular respiration cycle would be less efficient because NAD+ would not be able to properly bind to the electrons. However, the cell’s ATP requirements would not change. Therefore, the cell would be forced to go through more cycles of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to produce adequate levels of NADH due to this decreased efficiency. The fuel for these extra cycles would either come from food intake, or from fat reserves throughout the body. Therefore, altogether, substance one is likely to cause weight loss.

As an added effect, if the NAD+ that is in the cell is not working efficiently due to the administration of substance one, the cell would need to create more NAD+ to compensate. Additionally, the cell would create more enzymes required for glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and other metabolic processes. This increase in the production of various cell proteins and molecules would require its own energy input, further increasing the weight-loss effect brought about by the administration of substance one. However, this secondary effect is much smaller as compared to the primary weight loss effect described above wherein more energy and fuel resources are used by the body to compensate for the lack of efficient NAD+ molecules.

These are the questions:

1. From where does ATP synthase get the energy to convert ADP to ATP?

2.Why is ADP so important? What does ADP do?

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