I need 500 words for review on ;
Evaluate and discuss different descriptions and understandings of autism, incorporating different models of disability into the analysis.
As part of your discussion, you should consider the impact of these different descriptions of autism on how autistic children and young people are supported in schools.
I need 500 words for review on ; Evaluate and discuss different descriptions and understandings of autism, incorporating different models of disability into the analysis. As part of your discussion, y
Assignment Structure (Option 1) Written assignment of 5000 words. (Font Style Arial Size12) Evaluate and discuss different descriptions and understandings of autism, incorporating different models of disability into the analysis. As part of your discussion, you should consider the impact of these different descriptions of autism on how autistic children and young people are supported in schools. The Golden Rule SUPPORT YOUR ASSIGNMENT WITH RELEVANT LITERATURE THROUGHOUT Below is a suggested structure: please use for guidance only i.e. you do not need to follow what I have set out here. However, the important point is that you need to have a clear structure which a) a has distinct narrative and b) builds an argument that leads to a logical conclusion. 1.Introduction Background information Autism prevalence in the UK and internationally Issues for autistic pupils in relation to school settings (e.g. exclusion, poor outcomes) Brief summary of the issues in relation to different understandings of what autism ‘is’ and why this matters (500 words) Terminology Write a short, evidence-based paragraph on the different terminology that is used in relation to autism, explaining what terminology you will be using and why (but without going too much into the arguments you will be covering in the next part of your assignment). (400 words) Describe and discuss how autism is typically diagnosed How does this fit within a medical model of disability (ensure that you explain what this is as well)? What are the consequences of these descriptions of autism For research? For practice? (900 words) Describe and discuss some alternative conceptualisations of autism e.g. Autism as a form of ‘difference’ Autism and gender Autism as a social construct Neurodiversity What are the consequences of these descriptions of autism For research? For practice? As part of your discussion, consider whether autism should be considered a disability. Explain how these understandings fit within the social model of disability and the biopsychosocial model of disability (and be clear about what these are). (1200 words) Consider issues of ethnicity in relation to autism What are the areas of difficulty autistic children tend to experience in school and what are the solutions? Which model/s of disability lend themselves most to these solutions? e.g. Communication Socialisation Sensory issues Learning styles Models of support (1300words) Autistic participation Reflect on how much we can learn in research and practice from autistic perspectives. What are the ‘community’ priorities?(200 words) Conclusion What are the current longer-term outcomes for autistic children and young people in terms of employment, health and well-being? How can outcomes be improved? Reflect on how this module/assignment/process of learning about autism has impacted on you personally and professionally (note: you should not include any private information, and please do not write in a specific way about children or colleagues you work with). What needs to happen in the future In terms of research? In terms of practice? ( 500words) Reference list in Harvard style Assignment Option 2 Power point presentation of 20 minutes Write and present a power point presentation which introduces a training programme for school practitioners who work with autistic children and young people. Your training programme should incorporate an analysis of different descriptions and understandings of autism and how these fit within different models of disability. The Golden Rule SUPPORT YOUR PRESENTATION WITH RELEVANT LITERATURE THROUGHOUT Title slide Include your student number, the title of your presentation. Also any certification e.g. for dyslexia. Make the slide clear and presentable: do not over-clutter with graphics. Aim to maintain the same style and font throughout your presentation. Background information Autism prevalence in the UK and internationally Issues in relation to school settings (e.g. exclusion, poor outcomes) How autism is typically diagnosed Explain how this fits within a medical model of disability What are the consequences of these descriptions of autism for school settings? Describe and discuss briefly some alternative conceptualisations of autism e.g. Autism as a form of ‘difference’ Autism and gender Autism as a social construct Neurodiversity As part of your discussion, consider whether autism should be considered a disability. Consider autism and issues of ethnicity. Explain how these understandings fit within the social model of disability and the biopsychosocial model of disability (and be clear about what these are). What are the consequences of these descriptions of autism for school settings? Terminology Explain the different terminology that is used in relation to autism and what terminology you will be using and why. Communication Explain how best to support the communication of autistic children in schools and why Sensory issues Explain how best to support the sensory issues of autistic children in schools and why Learning How do autistic children learn? How can their learning best be supported? Socialisation Explain how best to support the socialisation of autistic children in schools and why Models of support What are the models of support for autistic children in school, and what are the issues associated with these? Autistic participation Reflect on how much we can learn in research and practice from autistic perspectives. Conclusion What are the current longer-term outcomes for autistic children and young people in terms of employment, health and well-being? How can outcomes be improved with your training? What are the key points those listening need to take on board? Reflect on how this module/assignment/process of learning about autism has impacted on you personally and professionally (note: you should not include any private information, and please do not write in a specific way about children or colleagues you work with). What needs to happen in the future In terms of research? In terms of practice? Reference list in Harvard style: take more than one slide if you need to. Final tip on structure: you will be expected to cover all aspects of the module in your assignment, so if you find that you have left out some parts, revisit what you have written and see where they can be relevantly incorporated. However, do not simply throw everything in, hoping that will do the job!
I need 500 words for review on ; Evaluate and discuss different descriptions and understandings of autism, incorporating different models of disability into the analysis. As part of your discussion, y
READING LIST Autism Spectrum Condition and Educational Approaches Core Lawson, W. (2008) Concepts of Normality (The Autistic and Typical Spectrum). London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. A key text by autistic academic Dr Wenn Lawson (and others) on how conceptualise autism, and avoid pathology-based approaches. Murray, D., Lesser, M. and Lawson, W. (2005) ‘Attention, monotropism and the diagnostic criteria for autism.’ Autism 9, 2, 136–156. Important article in which a key aspect of autism – monotropism – is discussed. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Attention%2C-monotropism-and-the-diagnostic-criteria-Murray-Lesser/150be9f091403f16696884977b09385ed380c06d Pellicano, E., Dinsmore, A. and Charman, T. (2014) A Future Made Together: Shaping Autism Research in the UK. London: Institute of Education. https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10017703/ This accessible report on different research priorities can be downloaded from this link. Wood, R. (2019) Inclusive Education for Autistic Children: Helping Children and Young People to Learn and Flourish in the Classroom. London and New York: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. This is the core textbook covering different aspects of autism, education and inclusion. It can be downloaded for free from the UEL library or a hard copy can be borrowed. Other Reading and Resources Arnold, L. (2013) ‘The social construction of the savant.’ Autonomy, the Critical Journal of Interdisciplinary Autism Studies 1, 2, 1–8. http://www.larry-arnold.net/Autonomy/index.php/autonomy/article/view/OP2/pdf Article by autistic academic Dr Larry Arnold on how autistic people are presented by others, including when they have very high abilities. Baird, G., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Chandler, S. et al. (2006) ‘Prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames: The Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP).’ The Lancet 368, 9531, 210–215. A key text on autism prevalence. Link to article via UEL Library Search : https://uel.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/44UEL_INST/6u551o/cdi_proquest_miscellaneous_68649788 Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A. and Frith, U. (1985) ‘Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind”?’ Cognition 21, 1, 37–46. http://www.autismtruths.org/pdf/3.%20Does%20the%20autistic%20child%20have%20a%20theory%20of%20mind_SBC.pdf Article exploring one of the key psychological theories in relation to autism: Theory of Mind (often abbreviated to ToM). Baron-Cohen, S. (2002a) ‘Is Asperger Syndrome necessarily viewed as a disability?’ Focus on Autism and Developmental Disabilities 17, 3, 186–191. http://docs.autismresearchcentre.com/papers/2002_BC_ASDisability.pdf Article considering whether autism should be seen as a disability. Baron-Cohen, S. (2002b) ‘The extreme male brain theory of autism.’ TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences 6, 6, 248–253. An article that has ignited a great deal of discussion in relation to autism and gender. Link to article via UEL Library Search: https://uel.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/44UEL_INST/6u551o/cdi_proquest_miscellaneous_1859374352 Barton, M. (2012) It’s Raining Cats and Dogs: An Autism Spectrum Guide to the Confusing World of Idioms, Metaphors and Everyday Expressions. London and Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Book by autistic writer Michael Barton (who is the same ‘Michael’ in my book) about the difficulties of understanding metaphor for literal thinkers (which a number of autistic people are). Bogdashina, O. (2016) Sensory Perceptual Issues in Autism and Asperger Syndrome, 2nd ed. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. In-depth analysis of sensory and perceptual issues in relation to autism. Broderick, A.A. and Ne’eman, A. (2008) ‘Autism as metaphor: Narrative and counter-narrative.’ International Journal of Inclusive Education 12, 5–6, 459–476.An article critiquing the ways autism is often described and discussed. Cassidy, S., Bradley, P., Robinson, J., Allison, C., McHugh, M. and Baron-Cohen, S. (2014) ‘Suicidal ideation and suicide plans or attempts in adults with Asperger’s syndrome attending a specialist diagnostic clinic: A clinical cohort study.’ The Lancet Psychiatry 1, 2, 142–147. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpsy/article/PIIS2215-0366(14)70248-2/fulltext Content warning: an article demonstrating the high levels of suicidality of the autistic population. Cook, A., Ogden, J. and Winstone, N. (2017) ‘Friendship motivations, challenges and the role of masking for girls with autism in contrasting school settings.’ European Journal of Special Needs Education 33, 3, 302–315. An article about gender and ‘masking’. Courchesne, V., Girard, D., Jacques, C. and Soulières, I. (2018) ‘Assessing intelligence at autism diagnosis: Mission impossible? Testability and cognitive profile of autistic preschoolers.’ Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 49, 845- 856. Courchesne and colleagues in Montreal are conducting some of the most important research in the autism field. Here they consider how assessments of autistic intelligence can be flawed if not approached in the right way. Dawson, M. (2010) ‘Are you high or low functioning? Examples from autism research.’ The Autism Crisis: Science and Ethics in an Era of Autism Politics. Available at http://autismcrisis.blogspot.co.uk/2010/, accessed on 10 October 2017. Important blog from a highly respected autistic researcher in which terms such as ‘high functioning’ and ‘low functioning’ are critiqued. Dawson, M., Soulières, I., Gernsbacher, M.A. and Mottron, L. (2007) ‘The level and nature of autistic intelligence.’ Psychological Science 18, 8, 657–662. A brilliant article which shows that different assessment instruments reveal different results, concluding that autistic intelligence has been underestimated. Eguiguren Istuany, O. and Wood, R. (2020) ‘Perspectives on educational inclusion from a small sample of autistic pupils in Santiago, Chile.’ Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 22(1): 210–220. Study in which a small sample of autistic children in Chile reflect on their difficulties in school and design their ideal classroom. Free to download. Gernsbacher, M.A., Morson, E.M. and Grace, E.J. (2016) ‘Language and speech in autism.’ Annual Review of Linguistics 2, 413–425. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5260808/ Article in which the authors argue that speech difficulties in autism are not only present in autistic children, and that echolalia can be an important stepping stone to speech development. Happé, F. and Charlton, R.A. (2012) ‘Aging in autism spectrum disorders: A mini-review.’ Gerontology 58, 1, 70–78. https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/329720 The vast majority of autism research focuses on children (even though we spend most of our lives as adults). Important, relatively early review of autism and aging. Hirvikoski, T., Mittendorfer-Rutz, E., Boman, M. and Larsson, H. (2016) ‘Premature mortality in autism spectrum disorder.’ The British Journal of Psychiatry 208, 3, 232–238. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry/article/premature-mortality-in-autism-spectrum-disorder/4C9260DB64DFC29AF945D32D1C15E8F2 Content warning: key article which shows the very poor health outcomes of autistic people, particularly those with associated learning disabilities. Hodge, N. and Runswick-Cole, K. (2008) ‘Problematising parent–professional partnerships in education.’ Disability & Society 23, 6, 637–647. http://shura.shu.ac.uk/6096/ How parents of children with SEND can be problematised. Humphrey, N. and Lewis, S. (2008) ‘“Make me normal”: The views and experiences of pupils on the autistic spectrum in mainstream secondary schools.’ Autism 12, 1, 23–46. Key article exploring the experiences of autistic pupils in secondary school. Kapp, S. (2020) (ed.) Autistic Community and the Neurodiversity Movement: Stories from the Frontline. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Edited book exploring neurodiversity. Free to download. Kenny, L., Hattersley, C., Molins, B., Buckley, C., Povey, C. and Pellicano, E. (2016) ‘Which terms should be used to describe autism? Perspectives from the UK autism community.’ Autism 20, 4, 442–462. https://www.west-info.eu/the-language-used-by-autism-communities-to-describe-autism/1362361315588200-full/ Key article exploring the use of terminology in autism. Milton, D. (2012) ‘The ontological status of autism: The “double empathy problem”.’ Disability & Society 27, 6, 883–887. https://kar.kent.ac.uk/62639/. A key text reversing the long-held view that autistic people lack empathy. Milton, D. (2014) ‘So what exactly are autism interventions intervening with?’ Good Autism Practice 15, 2, 6–14. https://kar.kent.ac.uk/62631/. Article critiquing interventionist approaches towards autism. Perepa, P. (2014) Cultural basis of social ‘deficits’ in autism spectrum disorders, European Journal of Special Needs Education, 29 (3), pp. 313-326, DOI: 10.1080/08856257.2014.908024. Important article on the impact of different cultural backgrounds on how autism is perceived. Pellicano, E., Hill, V., Croydon, A., Greathead, S., Kenny, L. and Yates, R. (2014) My Life at School: Understanding the Experiences of Children and Young People with Special Educational Needs in Residential Special Schools. London: Institute of Education. https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/my-life-at-school-understanding-the-experiences-of-children-and-young-people-with-special-educational-needs-in-residential-special-schools A very interesting but slightly depressing report on the experiences of children and young people with SEND in residential settings, focusing on their own perspectives. Well worth a read. Rajendran, G. and Mitchell, P. (2007) ‘Cognitive theories of autism.’ Developmental Review 27, 2, 224–260. Useful summary of the three theories of cognitive impairment associated with autism. Ravet, J. (2011) ‘Inclusive/exclusive? Contradictory perspectives on autism and inclusion: The case for an integrative position.’ International Journal of Inclusive Education 15, 6, 667–682. Article in which the author sets out some of the complexities associated with autism and inclusion, and suggests some solutions. Sainsbury, C. (2009) Martian in the Playground: Understanding the Schoolchild with Asperger’s Syndrome. London: Sage Publications. Book by an autistic author explaining the difficulties autistic children and young people can experience in school. Sinclair, J. (1999) ‘Why I dislike “person first” language.’ Autism Mythbusters. Available at http://autismmythbusters.com/general-public/autistic-vs-people-with-autism/jim-sinclair-why-i-dislike-person-first-language/, accessed on 14 June 2013. Quite famous, accessible blog in which the problems associated with ‘person first’ language in relation to autism are discussed. Williams, D. (1992/1999) Nobody Nowhere, revised ed. London and Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. One of the autobiographies by Donna Williams in which she writes about her childhood through to early adulthood. A strange, disturbing, but powerful book. Wood, R. and Milton, D. (2018) ‘Reflections on the value of autistic participation in a tri-national teacher-training project through discourses of acceptance, othering and power.’ British Journal of Special Education 45, 2, 157–171. We critique the concept of autistic participation in relation to a European training programme we both worked on: autistic people can still be excluded even when they are supposedly included. Wood, R. (2020a) ‘The wrong kind of noise: Understanding and valuing the communication of autistic children in schools.’ Educational Review, 72(1): 111-130. Research evidence on the problems autistic children can experience in schools if their communication is not supported in the right way. Available from the UEL library. Link to pre-publication manuscript via UEL Library repository: https://repository.uel.ac.uk/item/87426 Wood, R. (2020b) ‘From Difference to Diversity in School’, in Milton, Murray, D., Ridout, S., Martin, N. and Mills, R. (eds) The Neurodiversity Reader, Shoreham-by-Sea: Pavilion. Book chapter exploring the concept of ‘difference’ in relation to autism and education. Can be accessed here: https://repository.uel.ac.uk/item/87661 Wood, R. and Happé, F. (2020) ‘Barriers to tests and exams for autistic pupils: Improving access and longer-term outcomes.’ International Journal of Inclusive Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2020.1866685. Article in which the difficulties autistic pupils have in accessing school tests is discussed. Can be downloaded from the UEL library. Wood, R. (2021) ‘Autism, intense interests and support in school: From wasted efforts to shared understandings.’ Educational Review, 73(1): 34-54. Article which shows how enabling autistic children to access their strong interests in school facilitates their educational inclusion. Link to pre-publication manuscript via UEL Library repository: https://repository.uel.ac.uk/item/87422 Wood, R. and Happé, F. (2021) ‘What are the Views and Experiences of Autistic Teachers? Findings from an Online Survey in the UK.’ Disability & Society. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09687599.2021.1916888 Article exploring issues around autism, employment and educational inclusion.