Florida State University Biology Discussion

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Reply on these two post min of 250 word

First Post:

I presented a condition or disease called Gastroparesis (GP).The pathological basis for GP is multifactorial and complex; this is due to the limited comprehensive studies and research available from the pathology of the gut in patients affected with gastroparesis. This disease is present in the stomach and presents as significantly impaired or delayed gastric emptying of liquids and solids, generally in the absence of an obstruction.

The various etiologies of gastroparesis are idiopathic GP, diabetic GP, Post-surgical GP, and Medication-related GP. The most common etiologies are idiopathic gastroparesis and diabetic gastroparesis. Gastroparesis is difficult to diagnose because the symptoms and the signs can present or be overshadowed by other conditions, essentially there aren’t any distinct signs or symptoms suggesting GP has developed. The most common signs and symptoms are nausea/vomiting (some people complained of severe retching), bloating, premature satiety/postprandial fullness, abdominal discomfort and or pain, dyspepsia/indigestion, fear of eating (especially in children), weight loss and feeding complications in young children and infants. There have also been situations where GP presents asymptomatically typically with idiopathic GP and will only be diagnosed once symptoms become severely noticeable. The more susceptible population would entail women, African Americans and Hispanic populations.

The clinical manifestations and risk factors associated with gastroparesis vary, but all are recorded precursors to GP formation. Some of the most common factors include but are not limited too: diabetes, viral infections, anorexia nervosa or bulimia, GERD, smooth muscle disorders, metabolic disorders, and nervous system diseases and disorders. These symptoms can also influence the integrity of the gut to perform and function correctly on a cellular level. The cellular and tissues within the stomach that typically have altered functionality are the Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), gastric pacemaker cells, and the enteric nerves and muscular layer (fibrosis may occur). Only a small portion of patients have been recorded of having enteric nerves and muscle layer compromised function.

The initial step in determining if someone has GP is to visit their family physician for a physical examination. By having a physically examination, this will often lead to further testing, especially if the patient presents with any abdominal pain or bloating. Also, if signs of malnutrition and dehydration are apparent then this would also be indicators of digestive complications. Any of these indicators from a physical examination should lead to lab tests such as blood and or urine tests (important for determining glucose levels, dehydration, malnutrition, diabetes, infection, etc). Other diagnostic tests are gastric scintigraphy and wireless motility capsule.

Gastroparesis can be treated multiple ways. Prokinetic agents are often used due to the efficacy in alleviating symptoms. Gastric Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy (G-POEM) is also a common surgical treatment. Botulinum Toxin Pyloric Therapy is often used in conjunction with other treatments. Currently modified nutritional approaches are being studied as a form of treatment.

The sites that I utilized and found most helpful were META, PubMed, and Google scholar. I also would use our schools library to find full length articles that weren’t already open access. This was a difficult disease to research due to the lack of research done, however META was a really useful resource since it allowed me to search for anything related to gastroparesis. By researching this disease it provided me with a renewed appreciation for the individuals that conduct this research along with the time and effort that they put into the studies. I have always enjoyed research and love learning new things. Medicine always brings such a great appreciation for all the work that has been done over the years to improve treatments and clinical practices.

Secon Post:

Celiac disease is a severe autoimmune disease that is likely to occur in people who get their small intestines damaged by intestinal gluten. The disease is reported in 1 out of every 100 individuals across the world. It is estimated that almost two and a half million Americans have the disease but are not diagnosed properly which is likely to trigger greater health complications. Mostly, celiac disease is reported among genetically predisposed people. This means that it occurs in people that have a family history of the disease.

The disease is also popular as celiac sprue or gluten-sensitive enteropathy. What happens during the disease is that when people, having celiac disease, eat gluten, their body triggers an immune response attacking their small intestine. Gluten is a protein chiefly found in wheat, rye, and barley. These attacks cause damage to the intestinal lining finger-like projections called villi. Villi wor to promote the absorption of nutrients during the process of digestion and its damage during the disease causes improper absorption of nutrients (malabsorption) into your body. This improper nutrient absorption causes various other health complications like diarrhea, bloating, fatigue, anemia, weight loss, etc. Most importantly, this disease-related malabsorption affects growth and development.

Celiac disease, as mentioned above, is hereditary. It means that it runs in families and is inherited among successive generations. People who have the disease in their immediate family members like parents and siblings have a 1 in 10 risk of developing it. Furthermore, there is no age restriction for the onset of the disease. It can occur at any age especially when people start consuming foods and medicines containing gluten. If the condition is left untreated it promotes severe and problematic health-related decline. Until now, there is no potential cure for celiac disease. However, following a strict gluten-free diet can help you manage the symptoms and it significantly promotes intestinal healing.

I think by doing this presentation I have become better at researching information in a timely fashion. There are so many different platforms to look for scientific information for example pubmed as well as ncbi. I found myself reading through papers better and better each time I would go through them. I think this will have a lasting effect on me and hope I can carry this ability to read scientific papers through medical school and beyond. Being able to go through these dense pieces of literature is crucial when you are a physician because you must keep up with current research and protocols. Overall I think the presentation itself allowed me to get better at talking about a difficult topic because I haven’t had to do that much in my previous studies.

Thank you


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