Early childhood Education and development: Working with families and community
- Design a parenting program for:
Parents in a rural low income neighbourhood where malnutrition is high and school attendance is low.( in grenadian context)
The assignment must include:
1. Presentation of slides – 10-12 slides
The PowerPoint presentation should include:
1. What is parenting education?
2. Aim of the intervention.
3. Rationale of the intervention for the population described
4. Literature on the relevance of the topic
5. Intervention overview (venue, materials, resources, resource persons and their role, format of sessions, session topics)
6. Measurement of intervention success (how will success be measured? Insert form, timeline etc.)
8. References (APA format)
Early childhood Education and development: Working with families and community Instruction: Design a parenting program for: Parents in a rural low income neighbourhood where malnutrition is high and s
Working with family and community. Unit 3:Parenting and parent education Presented by: Lill James (MA) Clinical Community Psychology At the end of this unit, participants will be able to: 1. Define parenting 2. Define parent education 3. Discuss the difference between parenting and parent education • Parenting is the group of activities and processes involved in child rearing. • The educated parent should be better able to direct parenting activities in a positive way . • This unit differentiates between parenting and parent education and examines how the latter affects the former. Parent • A father or mother; one who begets or one who gives birth to or nurtures and raises a child; a relative who plays the role of guardian. (vocabulary.com) • One that begets or brings forth offspring. • A person who brings up and cares for another (Merrian -Webster dictionary) • Being a parent does not necessarily mean that you biologically passed your genetics to a child. • A parent can take on different forms, such as stepparent, grandparent, legal guardian, or a combination. Parenting • T he process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood. • Parenting refers to the aspects of raising a child aside from the biological relationship. • Parenting is usually done by the biological parents of the child in question, although governments and society take a role as well . • In many cases, orphaned or abandoned children receive parental care from non -parent blood relations. Others may be adopted, raised in foster care, or placed in an orphanage. Parenting • The raising of children and all the responsibilities and activities that are involved in it. ( Cambridge Dictionary) • T he process of raising children and providing them with protection and care in order to ensure their healthy development into adulthood. ( Enclyclopedia Britannica) Performing the role of a parent by care -giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child’s needs. The natural ability, qualities and acts of all parents to love, nurture, provide and contribute to the development of their child or children in a nonjudgmental, fair and just way and to create a united family environment where parents and their child or children have a positive and loving relationship with their parents . PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent. What parenting looks like… • The parent is a counselor and a confidant. Because parents have your child‟s best interests at heart, they are in a good position to give sound advice. They encourage the child to reach for the stars . • Parents are a teachers. Whether teaching a child how to walk, or the difference between right and wrong, or how to conduct oneself in social settings, and everything in between, a parent‟s job as teacher is never done . • parents are a role model. Children imitate their parent‟s behavior. The child‟s little eyes always watching, and parents do your best to lead by example. What parenting looks like… • Parents take care of your child. Physically and emotionally, parent are the child‟s caretaker. They often put their child‟s needs before their own. What parenting looks like… • P arents are providers. parents see to it that there‟s food on the table for the child. • P arents are a protector. They try their best to keep the child safe. • Parents love their child. The love that a parent has for his or her child is incomparable. In addition, the child may become their world, “their everything .” What parenting looks like… • Teaching the Child to Function Independently It is the parent‟s job to teach the child age -appropriate skills in order to allow them to become more and more independent. There comes a time when the child needs to learn how to emotionally soothe himself, tie his shoes, write his name, and cope when someone teases him. Over time, he will need to develop more and more advanced skills. He needs to know how to type a paper, say no to drugs, drive a car, and fill out a job application. Indeed, he needs to learn that his level of responsibility will grow throughout his life. Parenting looks like… • Holding the Child Accountable Parents are responsible for holding their child accountable for his behavior and actions. At the very least, this means setting limits with the child when she behaves inappropriately . For example: when a child shouts to other members of the family, the parent can say: “we do not talk this way in this house” and walk away Parenting looks like… Making Tough Decisions That Are Not Popular • If the child doesn‟t get angry with the parent at least once in a while, the parent not doing their job. • Along with this, remember that parents are not required to give lengthy explanations of their decisions. • For instance, “It‟s not safe” can be plenty of explanation when a teenager asks why he can‟t jump off the roof and onto the trampoline . • “It‟s your responsibility” is enough justification for telling the child it‟s homework time. You don‟t need to get into all the possible “what -ifs” and “if -thens .” Parenting should not be… Doing for Your Children What They Are Capable of Doing for Themselves • Many times children will ask parents to do something for them that we know they are capable of doing on their own. parents are no longer responsible for those things. • For example, a grade -schooler might not make his bed perfectly the first time, but practice (and doing it imperfectly several times) is what he needs to get to the point where he can do it on his own. • let the kids struggle sometimes. Try your best to give them increasing levels of responsibility. Parenting should not be… Controlling Your Children • Children are not puppets and parents are not a puppeteer. • There is no possible way that parents can control every move their child makes or everything their child says, especially outside of the home. • Children have their own free will and will act on their own accord — and often in self -interest. • We can‟t control our kids, but we can influence them by the limits we set and the consequences we give. As James Lehman says, “You can lead a horse to water, and you can‟t make him drink — but you can make him thirsty.” Parenting should not be… Making Sure Your Kids Are Always Happy • It is good for children to be happy overall. But there will many times, especially when parenting responsibly, that the children will be furious. • For instance, when parents set limits or give them a consequence, they may not like it initially . • But that‟s part of the job description as a parent and head of the household. • Parents do not make decisions based on what their kids will like, tolerate, or be okay with. Instead, you make the decisions that are best for them and the family, then follow through. Parenting should not be… Getting the Approval of Others • Parents do not need other adults in their life to tell them that they are doing the right thing. • Parenting is not a popularity contest in the family or in your community. • Sure , it feels great when other adults, such as the child‟s teachers, says that the child is doing something well. But it‟s not necessary in order for running your family well Considerations of parenting • Development of children‟s peer relationships. • Development of child‟s self regulation. • Parent socialization and the child‟s acquisition of values. • Maximizing the child‟s cognitive abilities. • Parenting children with special needs. (stigma, self blame, asking for help) Social ecology of parenting 1. Socio – economic status 2. Culture 3. Environment Parenting research findings • Warm, authoritative and responsive parenting is usually crucial in building resilience. Parents who develop open, participative communication, problem -centred coping, confidence and flexibility tend to manage stress well and help their families to do the same. • Children‟s perspectives show that what young people „think‟ is not necessarily what parents „think they think‟. Parents tend to underestimate their own influence, but are also prone to take insufficient account of children‟s feelings at times of emotional stress . • There is no clear -cut, causal link between poverty and parenting. However, poverty can contribute to parental stress, depression and irritability leading to disrupted parenting and to poorer long -term outcomes for children . • Differences in child temperament, among other factors, demonstrate that flexible, adaptable parenting is more likely to be effective than a „one size fits all‟ approach. Parenting research findings • T he quality of parent -child relationships is significantly associated with : 1. Learning skills and educational achievement. Children‟s reading ability is associated with the reading environment around them and there is evidence that parental involvement with school is associated with achievement . 2. Social competence (most commonly studied within peer relationships). Parental warmth, lack of conflict, and control and monitoring appear to play an important role in developing children‟s social skills. 3. Aggressive „externalizing‟ behavior and delinquency. The more extreme the circumstances for parents, the worse the outcomes for children and likelihood of psychological disturbance . 4. Depression , anxiety and other „internalizing‟ problems. Including complaints where physical symptoms are related to emotional stress and social withdrawal . 5. High -risk health behaviours. Such as smoking, illicit drug use, alcohol use, sexually risky behaviour and, in some studies, obesity. Thomas G. O’Connor and Stephen B.C. Scott (2007) Parenting research findings Hill et.al. (2007) • Parents, or alternative caregivers, play a pivotal role in promoting the knowledge, skills and environment that can help children cope with adversity . • Warm, authoritative and responsive parenting is usually crucial in building resilience. Parents who develop open, participative communication, problem -centred coping, confidence and flexibility tend to manage stress well and help their families to do the same. • Warm, authoritative and responsive parenting is usually crucial in building resilience. Parents who develop open, participative communication, problem -centred coping, confidence and flexibility tend to manage stress well and help their families to do the same. • Schools can play a central role in promoting resilience in relation to both poverty and family difficulties. This can relate to factors such as academic stimulus, support by teachers, learning opportunities and access to friends and peers. • Community factors can also promote resilience. Children are likely to find it easier to access support outside the home when they live in cohesive neighbourhoods with formal facilities that encourage participation and achievement Parenting research findings • Paternal involvement : The warmth of men‟s relationships with their children appears greater when they have good relationships with the mothers, when the home is „well -organised ‟, and when the family engages in regular, shared activities. One study found children‟s developmental progress was delayed when their mothers returned to work before they were 18 months old, but not when fathers were highly involved in child care. • Father’s influence on child development: Research with younger children suggests that mother -child relationships typically affect children‟s development more than father -child relationships. But studies of subsequent attainment suggest that fathers‟ „inputs‟ are consistently linked to measures of children‟s development once they enter secondary school, unlike those of mothers. There are also consistent associations between father -teenager relationships and a young person‟s adjustment to adult life. Lewis and Lamb (2009) Parenting research findings • Religion remains an understudied component of family life. Religiosity has been associated with protective factors that strengthen families, but little information is currently available on the beneficial or harmful roles that religion plays in the home . • Research demonstrates that racial discrimination and abuse impact on everyday practices of parenting, not least because parents try to protect their children from racism. Detailed research knowledge of the ways in which racism affects children and parenting is still limited . • Parenting in mixed heritage families has received limited attention despite evidence that their children of mixed parentage may face negative „ racialisation ‟ by relatives on both sides of their family. It is increasingly clear that children from different mixed backgrounds fare differently. • Parents who are stressed are less likely to be able to provide optimal home circumstances and more likely to use coercive and harsh methods of discipline. Katz et.al. (2007) Parent Education • Any deliberate effort to help parents be more effective in caring for children. • There is a growing awareness in society that many social problems are the result of inadequate parenting education; parents are not automatically equipped to deal with the challenges of childrearing . • Parent education can be done through: group meetings, resource centers, newsletters , radio programs, home visits, mentoring , Internet resources, support groups, books. Parent Education • Parent education programs help with providing support for: behavior -management and relationship enhancement. • Parent education is designed to help parents learn how to improve their skills in being the primary teacher for their children, and to help parents learn how to become full partners in the education of their children . • It can be conducted in many settings: school, health and religious organizations, and the community. • It is conducted by people with different backgrounds including human development, nursing, psychology, social work, and education. Benefits of Parent Education • Improves parental empowerment and competency. Parenting education improves parents’ sense of self -efficacy and competency, as well as parental satisfaction. It can also result in positive changes in parents’ attitudes about parenting as well as their self -esteem and feelings of self – mastery with regard to parenting. Benefits of Parent Education • Increases positive parenting practices. Parenting education promotes the use of positive parenting practices, such as using positive language, planned discipline, and family routines. It also encourages nurturing behavior and increases parents’ knowledge of child development and communication styles. Benefits of Parent Education • Decreases use of corporal punishment and risk of child abuse. Parent education programs help parents learn alternatives to physical punishment and change the family mindset regarding appropriate expectations of children, appropriate family roles, and other values that discourage the use of corporal punishment. Benefits of Parent Education • Increases social connections. Parenting education often results in more social connections among parents. Parents use these connections to exchange parenting advice, provide emotional support, and share resources. This can lead to more positive feelings about parenting overall. Benefits of Parent Education • Improves child behavior. Children of parents who participate in parenting education programs often demonstrate increases in their pro -social behaviors (e.g., empathy, sharing , helping others) and decreases in negative externalizing behaviors (e.g., aggression, delinquency, hyperactivity). Benefits of Parent Education • Improves parent -child interactions. Parenting education programs can help improve communication skills between parents and children, and result in an overall better understanding between family members. Benefits of Parent Education • Improves parental mental health and well – being . Parents may also experience short -term improvements in mental health, including a decrease in depression, anxiety, anger, guilt, and stress. What can we do? • Make program venues accessible to parents. • Make session times appropriate • Help promote family routines. Effective parenting programs emphasize the importance of family roles, regular family routines, and family activities. • Use skilled parent educators. Parents benefit most from programs that use trained parent education facilitators. What can we do? • Actively engage parents . Successful parenting programs provide opportunities for parents to practice the skills they are learning, either with a professional, at home, on -site with their child, or in a group setting. • Reach parents early. Programs aimed at serving new parents or parents of young children are better able to address challenges early, which sets the stage for more positive experiences later in life. What can we do? • Make cultural adaptations. Effective programs adapt materials and other program elements to accommodate the unique needs and cultural traditions of the families they are serving . • Offer frequent sessions over several months . Programs that run over several months and meet at least weekly tend to have the best outcomes.