create detailed project plans by using MS Project for the waterfall method and the Agile scrum method, separately. Include the following:
- The project plans should show the work breakdown structure (WBS), stakeholders, activity relationships, and key milestones for the different methods.
Using the Word file from Below, add 2 MS Project files for both waterfall and Agile methods.
Waterfall Method and Agile Scrum Method
According to Alshamrani and Bahattab (2015), the waterfall and agile scrum method is one of the oldest and well known SDLC models. A waterfall is a linear sequential design. During software development, it has a flexible approach and it’s less iterative. In this methodology, all processes flow in one direction. They flow downwards like a waterfall through each phase, that is, conception, initiation, analysis, design, coding, testing, implementation, and maintenance. Each phase is a discrete stage of software development. One cannot go to the next phase if the previous one is not completed. Returning to a previous phase is prohibited. The only way around it is to complete the whole development cycle the go back to the top. At the end of each stage, there is a review of requirements.
According to Abrahamson (2017), scrum has been considered an agile way of managing a project. It is simply a framework for managing a process. In the scrum methodology, complete detailed information about all the activities that are to be done in the project is not provided. Agile mostly relies on a cross-functional and self-organizing team. This means that there is an overall team leader who decides on the tasks that are to be handled and by who. The different phases of the development cycle in the agile scrum methodology can happen in parallel. A lot of teamwork is practiced in this method, as well as constant user feedback to ensure the process is efficient. Within the agile development, teams are given two specific roles. The scrum master acts as the coach of the team. The product owner plays the second role. Product owners include software development and users or customers.
Key stakeholders and reporting structures for the waterfall and agile scrum method
A project is successful when it meets the expectations of the stakeholders. These are the individual who cares about or have a certain interest in the project. The top management is one of the stakeholders. It includes the president and the vice president of the company, the division managers, directors, and the operating committee. There is the project team that is made of the individuals who work on the project. They may be internal or hired. The managers are also stakeholders who play the part of overseeing that the project is carried out in the right manner and according to expectations. Internal customers are involved in making sure that the project meets the specific internal demands of an organization (Alshamrani and Bahattab (2015).
The agile scrum method recognizes stakeholders as those individuals who are impacted or affected by the project. The end user is one of them. End users are the people who use the application that has been developed. There are also project sponsors who are able to provide all the financial and material needs of the project. System administrators are also stakeholders who are able to give guidance on the requirements of the application that is being developed. There are individuals who are directly affected by the project such as team members and managers. They control all the processes of development from the beginning to the end of the project. Domain experts are also stakeholders since they are qualified and specialized in handling issues that arise during the processes (Abrahamson et al., 2017).
Communication Strategies for the Waterfall and Agile Scrum Methods.
The agile methodology mainly uses the face-to-face communication strategy which proves to be effective and efficient as a means of sharing ideas. One of the strategies used is embracing the social process of developing software. Software development is mostly a social process and so it relies on the trust that is built between the team members. Discussion of the non-functional requirements is also discussed. The team addresses the questions surrounding scalability and performance. Without non-functional requirement being discussed, it can lead to rework and a lot of time may be lost. Communication can be enhanced by managing the distributed teams through more documentation. Documentation will allow more questions to be answered by the team leaders (Abrahamson et al., 2017).
In the waterfall method, the team leader communicates to the teams by guiding them on specific duties that are to be performed. The developers have the duty to write the codes in the application. The team leader provides them with the information about the requirements of the project. Every team is given its duties accordingly. Verbal communication is mostly used in the waterfall methodology. It provides the wider understanding of the project requirements. Visual communication is also used where the team leader uses flowcharts and boards to illustrate the processes and requirements of the project. It also helps to put a face on the scope of the project. Documentation of the work that is to be done is provided to each of the team members for them to read (Alshamrani & Bahattab, 2015).
Implementing Change during Agile Scrum and Waterfall Methodology
Agile Scrum methodology
Customers and stakeholders can change their requirements during an ongoing process. However, agile scrum methodology is flexible and thus able to accommodate any changes that may be needed. By the use of product backlogs, it is easy to set development priorities. Daily meetings are also important since any new changes are communicated to the team members and requirements are set on the proper way of making the changes. The use of task boards is highly effective since it makes the developer tasks visible. The user stories and sprints are used to orchestrate change (Martini, Pareto & Bosch, (2013
When administering change, the first step is to determine the scope of change. The change may be requested by a customer or a stakeholder. The changes are then analyzed and validated. The benefits of making the changes are also identified. The scope of incorporating change is determined. This enables the team to formulate the change. For change to happen, the team must give approval of the change, otherwise, it can be rejected. Change that does not require a lot of time and finances may be approved. When the change request is approved, the teams are notified and the project deliverable’s are updated (Martini, Pareto & Bosch, (2013).
Alshamrani, A., & Bahattab, A. (2015). A comparison between three SDLC models waterfalls model, spiral model, and Incremental/Iterative model. International Journal of Computer Science Issues (IJCSI), 12(1), 106.
Abrahamsson, P., Salo, O., Ronkainen, J., & Warsta, J. (2017). Agile software developmentmethods: Review and analysis. arXiv preprint arXiv:1709.08439.
Martini, A., Pareto, L., & Bosch, J. (2013, August). Communication factors for speed and reuse in large-scale agile software development. In Proceedings of the 17th internationalsoftware product line conference (pp. 42-51). ACM.