complete 2 mass communications discussion posts

Get quality term paper help at Unemployedprofessor.net. Use our paper writing services to score better and meet your deadlines. It is simple and straightforward. Whatever paper you need—we will help you write it!


Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper

Week 5 Discussions










Topic

Threads

Posts

Last Post

Respond: Week 5, Topic 1 – Ad Analysis (Req’d.)

Contains unread posts

Let’s do some pondering. Why is the following commercial effective?

Take a look at the American Research Group’s “10 Rules for More Effective Advertising.” Does the commercial use emotional appeals? Iconic images? Celebrity endorsements? Does it show rather than “tell”? What about this commercial:

What is it about this one that’s the same / different from the previous ad?

So, it this ad effective? Why / why not?

Baran and Davis (2009) explain advertisers generally use these tactics:

  • Name calling – giving an idea a bad label to deter message recipients from examining the item or issue more closely.
  • Glittering generality – associating something with a virtue word to win approval without the recipient examining the evidence.
  • Transfer – associating an item or claim to someone or something of authority or prestige to in effect create admiration by association.
  • Testimonial – having a respected or hated person say that a given idea or item is good or bad.
  • Plain Folks – having an idea or item be associated with a person who is “of the people.”
  • Bandwagon – convincing others some idea or item is acceptable because “everyone” thinks so.
  • Card Stacking – careful selection of facts or falsehoods, illustrations or distractions, and logical or illogical statements in order to give the best or worst possible case for an idea or item; for example, selecting arguments or evidence that supports a position and ignoring those that do not support the position.

These techniques are not unlike those of propaganda:

  • Propaganda – no-holds-barred use of communication to propagate specific beliefs and expectations.
  • White propaganda – Intentional suppression of potentially harmful information and ideas, combined with deliberate promotion of positive information or ideas to distract attention from problematic events.
  • Black propaganda – Deliberate and strategic transmission of lies.
  • Gray propaganda – Transmission of information or ideas that might or might not be false. No effort is made to determine their validity.
  • Disinformation – False information spread about the opposition to discredit it.
  • Engineered consent – Official use of communication campaigns to reach “good” ends. (Baran and Davis, 2009)

20th century propagandists believed that people’s ideas were malleable and could be influenced through adroit information manipulation. In this sense, propaganda is identical to persuasion. Only when it is perceived that an act benefits the source, but not the receiver, can the act or message be called propaganda. To use Brown’s definition (1958), persuasion is “symbol manipulation designed to produce action in others” (p. 299). Persuasive efforts become propaganda “when someone judges that the action which is the goal of the persuasive effort will be advantageous to the persuader but not in the best interests of the persuadee” (p. 300).

By this thinking, propaganda includes much of advertising (where the aim is not the good of the receiver but greater sales for the advertiser), most political campaigning (where the aim is not the good of the receiver directly but the candidate’s election), and much of public relations (where the aim is often not the good of the receiver but the most favorable image of the message’s sponsor. Lasswell (1977) defined the major purposes of propaganda as:

  • to mobilize hatred against some enemy
  • to preserve friendships
  • to procure cooperation
  • to demoralize opponents

In one way or another, all propaganda devices represent faulty arguments. Knowledge of the devices can make people better consumers of information. (For more on how to detect propaganda, you might take a look at this classic article.)

Before you tackle the following activity, please make sure you have read the materials at all of the links in this discussion question.

(To deepen your understanding, you might also review the advertising theories in the Encyclopedia of Communication Theory and Tony Purvis’s essay, “Advertising – A Way of Life” (Chapter 1) in Advertising As Culture.)

Let’s look at what makes an advertisement successful. Please select and complete one of the following activities.

Activity #1:

Scan the Internet or the resources in our university library’s periodical databases, such as Adflip or this one from Duke University, for an advertisement (in any medium–print, radio, TV, the Internet, etc., so long as you will be able to share it in class).

Analyze the ad using those “10 Rules for More Effective Advertising” or the questions in the media literacy lecture. Present your conclusions.

You can present your conclusions as a text response to this discussion prompt, or try your hand at a multimedia presentation, such as a narrated PowerPoint, unnarrated PowerPoint with Speaker’s Notes, infographic, Animoto, video, or Prezi. (Please check with your instructor on the preferred format for responses in your class.)

Make sure to include the advertisement in your presentation or a link to it, so that we can look at it, too.

Activity #2:

Alternatively, explain why we need to understand the role that advertising plays in our media and society. For example, what are some of the implications of the ubiquity of advertising in today’s media environment?

You can present your conclusions as a text response to this discussion prompt or try your hand at a multimedia presentation, such as a narrated PowerPoint, unnarrated PowerPoint with Speaker’s Notes, infographic, Animoto, video, or Prezi. (Please check with your instructor on the preferred format for responses in your class.)

Please post your initial response to this prompt by 11:59 p.m. Eastern Time on Thursday; respond to the initial posts of at least two other students by 11:59 p.m. Eastern Time on Sunday.

(Response required.)

References

Baran, S. J., and Dennis, D. K. (2009). Mass communication theory: Foundations, ferment, and future. Boston: Wadsworth.

Brown, R. (1958). Words and things. New York: Free Press.

Lasswell, H.D. (1927). Propaganda technique in the World War. New York: Peter Smith.

©2017 University of Maryland University College

5

8

Unread for topic Respond: Week 5, Topic 1 – Ad Analysis (Req’d.): (8)

View profile card for Loubna Idrissi

Loubna Idrissi

6 hours ago

Respond: Week 5, Topic 2 – PR Ethics (Req’d.)

Contains unread posts

DQ The public relations field is a kind of stepchild to communications studies. The lines between hucksterism and marketing, advertising, public relations, and propaganda theory are sometimes quite blurred. Also, with the use of cognitive science to learn how to develop successful public relations and advertising campaigns, there are some theorists who argue we may have moved into a “brave new world” of mind control and manipulation.

The term “brave new world” comes from social satirist/novelist Aldous Huxley’s science fiction book of the same name, published in 1931. In it, he expresses his horror of American culture (he was British), “particularly the fear of losing individual identity in the fast-paced world of the future. An early trip to the United States gave Brave New World much of its character. . . Huxley [was] outraged by the culture of youth, commercial cheeriness, sexual promiscuity and the inward-looking nature of many Americans” (Commentary from the Vintage Classics edition of Brave New World). This is a fear Apple leveraged successfully in its famous 1984 commercial introducing the Macintosh:

Many Hollywood movies, such as “Minority Report,” have explored the kinds of privacy invasions that have come to pass since Huxley and Orwell’s musings. Some say these changes are inevitable because the technological developments are responses to consumer trends. For example:

Consider these public relations stunts. Think about it; is getting attention in any way possible an appropriate strategy in a long-range plan to manage stakeholder impressions of a brand?

Fortunately, many public relations professionals take their jobs very seriously to communicate effectively both within their companies and to the public. Although a public relations “press release” will never have information that disconfirms its main claims or that questions the quality of the person or product being promoted, most PR professionals are good communicators who want to develop good relationships with the public and the media for their clients. Many PR professionals follow the code of ethics developed by the Public Relations Society of America.

Before you tackle one the following activities, please make sure you have read the assigned materials for this week. To recap they included pages 544-558 on the history of advertising, public relations and consumerism in Saylor’s Understanding Media and Culture, and the information on the advertising and public opinion theories in the Encyclopedia of Communication Theory.

Then, select and respond to the questions associated with one of the following two activities.

Activity #1:

Think about any times when you thought certain ads or public relations initiatives were not being completely straightforward. Then, watch these YouTube two commercials about natural gas extraction through fracking and the BP Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico:

Exxon-Mobil on fracking:

BP Oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico:


Select and respond to at least one of the following questions:

1. Do you think the “real” Fracking and BP oil spill ads follow the PRSA Code of Ethics?

2. How do the advertisements make it seem as if their positions are fair and reasonable? Do they present opposing points of view?

3. Do the mainstream news media regularly cover the potential environmental dangers of fracking? What about the BP spill? Why do you think commercial media, such as NBC, FOX, CNN, and other major networks do not cover environmental issues very much?

Activity #2:

Alternatively, consider completing this activity.

Another important issue is whether the businesses that can purchase commercials on TV, magazines, and billboards drown out the voices of people and organizations with less money but valid messages.

Select and respond to at least one of the following questions:

1. When we think about “commercial” media – and its most specifically targeted messages through PR or advertising – whose viewpoints get heard and who is ignored?

2. If a democracy relies upon the competition of ideas, whose ideas are being heard?

3. And with the purchase of Internet providers by large corporations, will a wide range of voices be able to be heard on the Internet, or just those that benefit the corporations?

Please post your initial response to this prompt by 11:59 p.m. Eastern Time on Thursday; respond to the initial posts of at least two other students by 11:59 p.m. Eastern Time on Sunday.

(Response required.)

Reference

Huxley, A. (1960). Brave new world. (5th ed.) New York: Penguin Vintage Classics.


Writerbay.net

Our affordable academic writing services save you time, which is your most valuable asset. Share your time with your loved ones as our Unemployedprofessor.net experts deliver unique, and custom-written paper for you.

Get a 15% discount on your order using the following coupon code SAVE15


Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper