Assignment: Why Study Database Design?
For this assignment, first review the assigned article:
- Article: Database Design – What HIM Professionals Need to KnowUsed with Copyright Permission received from AHIMA in April 2017.
- If the above article does not open, please use the link below:
Then, in a 1-2 page paper, written in APA format using proper spelling/grammar, address the following:
- What purposes can relational databases fulfill for healthcare organizations?
- Explain at least 5 skills the HIM professional should have for using databases.
- What have you learned about the needs of end users (such as physicians, HIM professionals, etc.) and the kinds of communications skills HIM professionals may use to determine the needs of end users such as physicians, charge nurses, etc.?
- Describe any personal experience you have had so far with using databases at work or school.
Be sure to write your paper in APA format and to provide APA citations for any additional resources you used as references.
Submit your completed assignment to the drop box below. Please check the Course Calendar for specific due dates.
Save your assignment as a Microsoft Word document.
Assignment: Why Study Database Design? For this assignment, first review the assigned article: Article: Database Design – What HIM Professionals Need to Know Used with Copyright Permission received fr
Week1-Assignment, Rubric, and Lesson Content Assignment: Why Study Database Design? For this assignment, first review the assigned article: Article: Database Design – What HIM Professionals Need to KnowUsed with Copyright Permission received from AHIMA in April 2017. If the above article does not open, please use the link below: https://content.learntoday.info/Learn/HIM3202_Summer_17/Media/HIM3202-Mod_01-Article_Database_Design.pdf Then, in a 1-2 page paper, written in APA format using proper spelling/grammar, address the following: What purposes can relational databases fulfill for healthcare organizations? Explain at least 5 skills the HIM professional should have for using databases. Remember to explain them; do not just list them. You may use the article as a basis, but you should expand upon items using your own impressions and ideas. What have you learned about the needs of end users (such as physicians, HIM professionals, etc.) and the kinds of communications skills HIM professionals may use to determine the needs of end users such as physicians, charge nurses, etc.? Describe any personal experience you have had so far with using databases at work or school. Be sure to write your paper in APA format and to provide APA citations for any additional resources you used as references. Submit your completed assignment to the drop box below. Please check the Course Calendar for specific due dates. Save your assignment as a Microsoft Word document. Rubric: Scoring Rubric:Module 01 Assignment – Why Study Database Design? Criteria Points Described what purposes relational databases can fulfill for healthcare organizations. 4 Explained at least 5 skills the HIM professional should have for using databases. 5 Explained what learned about the needs of end users, communication skills for HIM professionals. 5 Included personal views database experiences. 3 Wrote a 1-2 page paper in APA format using proper grammar/spelling and provided accurate APA citations. 3 Total 20 Lesson Content: Data in HIM Data, Information, and Metadata Health Information Management is responsible for the efficient, effective, and compliant gathering, storage, and retrieval of facts relating to healthcare. These facts are data, in that by themselves they have no meaning. The data becomes information once context has been established, to make the data items useful. An example would be a diastolic blood pressure reading of 100 (as in 170/100). Without information such as if it is systolic or diastolic, the age and gender of the patient, etc., we are unable to put the number into context, and it is therefore not information. A database, then, stores data and metadata (instructions about the data) so that healthcare professionals can input, store, and report data in the proper context. Standards Governing HIM Data Due to the sensitivity of the data that is collected within healthcare databases, there are many standards governing what and how data can be collected, stored, delivered, and shared. These standards come not only from local, state, and federal governmental agencies, but also from within the organization that you are working with. This course is focused on the structures, utilization, and manipulation of data in context of the modern, computerized healthcare record system. Database vs. Paper Files The database is a natural successor to paper patient files, and many of the characteristics of databases match these filing systems. A key benefit of database systems over paper medical records is the ability to form relationships between data elements. In this way, for example, we can relate a patient to their primary healthcare provider in order to efficiently retrieve a list of any of a provider’s patients from the database. Introduction to Databases Database Fundamentals Databases are electronic storage structures that hold data. A Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) is a suite of software applications that manages a database. The core of every database structure is the table, which is made up of rows and columns. Let’s look at a database that would collect information about books in a library. Each table in the database would collect information about a specific set of entities. One such table would hold the data about the books in the library. Each row in the book table would represent a unique record (or a single book in the collection). Each column in the book table would represent an attribute of the books in the table (such as the author). The specific author of a specific book would be found where the row for that book and the author column intersect. Each entity in a database has to be able to be identified uniquely. The piece of information that uniquely identifies the entity is called the Primary Key. Most people think of the title when identifying a book. There may be multiple copies of a book in a library, however, or there may be books by different authors using the same name. In these cases, a generated number is used that uniquely identifies an entity but has nothing to do with the entity itself. An example of this would be your student ID number. The patient medical ID number in a hospital is another example. Healthcare organizations use databases to store data related to research, billing and payment, patient ID, labs, diagnosis and procedures, HR functions, and more. With a database system, data can be quickly retrieved for reports, research, and other healthcare related functions using queries (requests for data in a database that meet specific criteria). Microsoft Access While there are many different types of databases, one database that you may be most familiar with is Microsoft Access. Though it may seem daunting to many, this software application is often used in small healthcare facilities. After a little bit of training and practice on the many different functions and query language, Microsoft Access can prove to be a great tool to collect, store, and share data for the purpose of healthcare operations. Forms, Tables, and Reports Many healthcare information students already have experienced using an electronic health record (EHR) or other applications that use a database. When you access the EHR to enter data, you (as the user) will not see the underlying Table structure used for data storage. Instead, you are seeing a Form for completion. Some medical personnel also refer to using Templates, which are actually customized or customizable Forms (in database terminology). If you have not yet worked in healthcare, you may have made a purchase online. As you fill in your address, phone number, zip code, number of items to purchase and your credit card information, you are also using a Form. Forms Forms are created to be the components accessible to the User. This is where we enter data. In this day and age, we are so accustomed to completing online Forms that instructions may not even be needed on a simple form’s completion. However, in healthcare, the data being entered, and the uses to which it will be put, are so complex and critical that often a great deal of training is needed to properly enter data. We may also hear Forms being called the FRONT END of the database. It is the most accessible, User-oriented part. When an EHR is implemented in a hospital, physician’s office, or HIM department, most of the staff’s training will be on properly and effectively completing these data entry Forms. Just remember, the Form is not the same as a complete database. The image below provides an example of an EHR data entry form. Tables Tables are the underlying storage sites and “holders” for the data. Each piece of data needs to have a specific place designated for it to be stored. This is why database designers work so hard at the start of a project, to understand a work process and system. If they do not consider ALL the data that needs to be stored before designing the database structure, we would end up with an inefficient design. Why would design efficiency matter, you might ask? Well, have you ever tried to accomplish an online order (perhaps a retail purchase or hotel reservation) and the screen seems to “freeze?” This may be due to an inefficient database rather than just your internet speed. Designers actually have response time “goals” to reach so that the User does not abandon the site or start to call the helpline unnecessarily. The common user will never see the data tables and how they relate. In this course, though, you will gain insights into that “secret view,” also called the BACK END of the database. Below is an image of a database table, including some completed data: Queries and Reports What good would data be if we entered it but could never again access, summarize or manipulate it, or answer questions such as, “How many patients were served in the month of March at WellServe Healthcare?” Sure, we could appoint a person at the front door to click a manual counter every time a patient walks in. But it’s much more accurate and efficient to use the data we have already entered! This is where Queries and Reports come into play. Queries are a structured way of “asking” the database to deliver only what we need to see — nothing more, nothing less. A Query result isn’t much more attractive or usable to managers than a basic table, though. In the final component of the database, we create user-friendly, readable Reports that contain and summarize the data for managers, using proper titles. An example of a report is depicted in the image below. Review Key Fields and Unique Identifiers By now you know that each patient needs to have a unique patient ID in our medical records system. An ID is different from the patient’s name and date of birth, but it can be searched for using those items. Now, we cover the use of “key fields” in the context of the database. Primary Key The Primary Key (PK) uniquely identifies each record in a table. In other words, the same primary key cannot be used for two different records/members in the table. A Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) can be a good way to uniquely identify a physician, for example. No two physicians would have the same UPIN, even if both physicians are named “Robert Jones.” Primary keys can be a single attribute or a combination of attributes. Usually a primary key is a single attribute/field, so one column in the data table contains the key. The table below shows an example of UPIN used as a single-attribute key (highlighted column). Physician UPIN (PK) Physician LName Physician FName Practice/Organization Name (FK) 553866 Holder Maxwell Careforyou Clinic 553998 Randolph George Randolph Associates 541887 Randolph John Randolph Associates Composite Key A composite key (CPK) may be needed in certain tables. Let us assume we have a table called “Patient’s Physician.” This kind of a table would be used because each patient can have many physicians and each physician has many patients. A combination table gets developed that is called “Patient’s physician.” This design idea will be more fully covered later. We may “combine” the two keys from both patient and physician that need to be used together. Sometimes we need an intermediary table such as the one below, which uses a composite key of PatientID plus physician’s UPIN: Patient’s Physician PatientID (CPK) UPIN (CPK) Patient LName Physician FName 111889 553998 Jorgenson Randolph 111890 553866 Jorgenson Holder Foreign Keys Foreign keys help create relationships between tables. Example: We need a table that contains specific information about the physician practice organization. This organization can contain many physicians, or at least one physician. By having a table especially dedicated to holding the practice’s location and other attributes, we will not need to repeat entering its practice location, phone number and other characteristics every single time we add a new physician. In the Physician table (at the top of the page), a practice name was listed. It was not the key for physician’s table though; instead it is, a “foreign key” in the physician table. The foreign key allows the practice’s information to be linked to the doctor as we use the database. It is “foreign” because it came originally from a different table (like someone from a foreign country). In the Physician Practice table (below), though, the practice’s name would be its primary key. At the same time, Practice Name is a primary key for Practice, but it also becomes a foreign key once it is placed into other tables so they can connect to the Physician table. When you perform your Lab for this module, the use of the foreign key will become more evident. PracticeName (PK) Address1 Address2 City State Zip Phone FirstCare 27 1st Ave Mora MN 55678 (727)555-3700 Careforyou clinic 555 Miller Street Suite 104 Forest Lake MN 55789 (651)333-3333 Randolph Associates 2700 Summit Ave St. Paul MN 55455 (651)558-4444 Physician Practice Simple Relational Database Entities and Attributes Database Entities Entities are items including persons, places, things, and events upon which the database tables are built. Entity Relationship Diagrams When first building a database, we develop a visual description using drawings of the various proposed tables. Once tables are identified, the analyst explores how they can relate and fit together. This is known as an Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD). See below a simple version of an Entity Relationship diagram. Note in the diagram below that the Physician entity/table is already linked using a line to the Practice of physicians. Practice has been connected to the Physician table. Patient has not yet been connected to Physician. This is because it is a more complex relationship, not ready to be connected quite yet. More entities will be added in future modules, once we understand more about various kinds of relationships.