Applications of Testing
In a minimum of 200 words, respond to the following:
- Discuss the advantages of using psychometrics in educational, occupational, and clinical settings.
- What are the best types of measuring tools for any one of the settings? Give an original example in your answer.
Share with your classmates an overview of your final project.
- Submit your questionnaire or survey (attached).
- Explain the procedures you would use to pilot your study.
- Describe the process of item analysis and the rationale for your decision to retain certain test items while eliminating others.
1. Cite all sources in APA format.2. Attach a Turnitin.com Report.
Applications of TestingTasks:In a minimum of 200 words, respond to the following:Discuss the advantages of using psychometrics in educational, occupational, and clinical settings.What are the best typ
Running head: PTSD IN WOMEN: PILOT SURVEY 0 PTSD in Women: Pilot Survey Abstract The sole purpose of this essay is to explain the findings of the pilot survey conducted to test the accuracy of the survey questionnaire developed and to evaluate the effectiveness of the various test items. In the survey questionnaire, the test items mainly concentrated in investigating the symptoms, effects severity, burden, treatment and the probability of reoccurrence of PTSD symptoms in patients after treatment. Basically, a pilot survey is a pre-survey of a fuller survey. In this case, the pilot survey has helped in proposing a basis for revising the study items and identifying the items that should be reviewed so that more accurate findings can be achieved. The findings of the pilot survey are that different treatment methods are effective in eliminating PTSD symptoms in patients. Also, when conducting the actual study, the severity and burden of PTSD should be combined and the social support item in the questionnaire should be removed as it makes no contribution to the study. PTSD in Women: Pilot Survey A pilot survey is a pre-survey of a fuller study. It may be used to analyze gaps that should be addressed in the study to make it more useful in data collection. Initially, from the target audience of the study as per their demographics, it was approximated that 7.8 percent of American citizens do experience symptoms of PTSD at some point in their lifetime. Research has also proven that women are twice more likely to develop PTSD symptoms (Lacey, McPherson, Samuel, Powell-Sears, & Head, 2013). Therefore, the research targeted to benefit both men and women. Individually, women between the age of fourteen and nineteen years and those in the range of twenty to thirty years were shortlisted as potential targets. These targeted women include those that have experienced traumatizing life experiences such as sexual abuse, accidents, and intimate violence. The sample for the pilot survey consisted of adult women between the ages 18 years to 30 who lived in the metropolitan area in Boston. The participants were selected from the community by the use local therapists and emails. The sample consisted of 36 women. This sample was viewed as representative for the pilot study, considering the financial constraints and time limits for the survey. Participants were eligible for inclusion in the pilot survey if they agreed to have experienced a life-threatening event (for at least the last three months before the screening). We tried to achieve the possible representative sample. Thus, the criteria for exclusion were minimal. The factors that resulted in exclusion were lack of a traumatizing experience and falling below the age of 18 years. We did not exclude women who were undergoing any forms of medical treatments and even drug abuse. Out of the 36 women selected for inclusion, 11 did not satisfy the inclusion criteria as they denied having had any life-threatening experiences. Furthermore, two women declined to take part in the survey, leaving a total of 23 women who were capable of participating. In administering the pilot survey questionnaire, respondents were asked to highlight demographic information including the level of education, income, religion, marital status, previous mental problems, and age after informing them of the privacy and confidentiality policies. The traumatic Life Events Screening Survey Questionnaire was then used to screen the respondents on occurrences of any threatening events in their lifetime. This questionnaire encompasses a 13-item self-report analysis which entails an in-depth yet simplified collection of behavioral-oriented questions established to collect adequate information concerning the form, number, and prevalence of PTSD (Gapen, Kolk, Hirshberg, Suvak, & Spinazzola, 2016). The measure includes two general and eleven specific groups of occurrences like experiencing a traumatizing accident, sexual and physical assault and seeing a friend, relative or a loved one being assaulted or killed. Also, the questions relating to the severity of PTSD symptoms on the respondents were asked following the format of Davidson Trauma Scale. This scale entails a combination of seventeen-item self-analysis evaluating the severity and presence of the symptoms of PTSD (Gapen, Kolk, Hirshberg, Suvak, & Spinazzola, 2016). In this scale, each test item contains a severity and frequency score crowned in a 0-4 rank. The summative score ranges between 0 and 36. Another measure was conducted to examine the changes observed after receiving psychological counseling, or other forms of treatment. Out of the 23 eligible participants, ten admitted to having received mental counseling while five others admitted having received different types of clinical procedures. The questionnaire gave the participants a chance to rate their experiences on a scale that ranged from 5 = extreme symptoms and one no symptoms at all. The analysis contained a total of 36 items, and the primary aim was to necessitate decisions on the reoccurrence or non-reoccurrence of PTSD symptoms after treatment. Furthermore, a social support questionnaire was administered to the respondents to gauge whether they were satisfied with the kind of social support they received from the relatives, friends and the community at large. The social support questionnaire was designed to have a range of options condensed into a 5-point Likert scale whereby 1= as much as I would expect and 5- less than I would expect. After receiving the responses, the results were recorded and condensed into one document. Out of the 36 participants, only 23 met the eligibility procedures. The twenty-three participants are 63 percent of the total individuals selected for the study. Furthermore, out of the 36 participants, two participants met the eligibility criteria but refused to participate. Therefore, out of 25 eligible participants, 92 percent agreed to participate which was a representative sample for the pilot survey. The 23 participants accepted experiencing life-threatening moments in their lives. However, their experiences differed favorably, and this was categorized into five: experiences relating to accidents, sexual abuse, social conflicts, the death of a relative, friend or loved one, witnessing somebody being killed and witnessing a friend or a loved one being assaulted. Out of these groupings, five participants admitted of having experienced sexual abuse (22%), ten admitted of having suffered social maltreatment (43%), and four admitted losing friends or loved ones (17%). Also, two recorded witnessing somebody being killed (9%) while the remaining two participants recorded seeing someone being assaulted (9%). The mean response was five which gave a standard deviation of 1.37. After analyzing the various life-threatening events experienced by different participants and grouping them according to experiences, the research sought to examine the severity of the fatal incidents on the participants. Five possible responses were listed to give the respondents an opportunity to record their answers. These included harming oneself, thoughts of suicide, outbursts of anger, difficulties concentrating and feeling guilty. Going by these groupings, ten respondents recorded having hurt themselves physically (43%), four admitted having suicide thoughts (17%), and five admitted experiencing outbursts of anger (22%). Also, three agreed to have troubles concentration on their duties (13%), and one person recorded feeling guilty (4%). The percentages gave an overall mean of 5 and a standard deviation of 1.40. The participants were also tested to evaluate the burden of the PTSD symptoms. However, this experienced low response, as the respondents could not differentiate between the strains and effects. Most of the respondents recorded their feelings and burdens on the parts that required them to express the severity of PTSD in their lives while others associated the difficulties with the signs of PTSD. Also, the Participants were asked on whether they were contented with the type of social support they received from the relatives and the community. Nine participants recorded that they were not satisfied with the support they received, while 14 registered being satisfied with the support they received from their families and relatives. Another essential part of the study was to determine the reoccurrences of these symptoms after receiving treatment. 100 percent recorded being aware of the possible treatment methods available for PTSD like counseling and other clinical treatment methods, with 60 percent recording being aware that counseling is a possible remedy for PTSD. Out of the 15 participants who admitted having received some forms of treatment, 5 participants admitted that occasionally they could still remember the traumatizing events. Three out of the five participants also revealed that they felt guilty about commemorating the game when they were sexually abused. Out of this pilot survey, we have realized that some test items in the questionnaire should be scraped out. One of them is the social support questionnaire. The main aim of the study is to screen for PTSD, its effects and possibility of reoccurrences after treatment in women. Therefore, social support does not act as a significant test item. Also, the burden of PTSD should be tested alongside the effects. This will not only save time but also alleviate the confusion that may exist among the respondents on the difference between the burden of PTSD and effects of PTSD. In a nutshell, the pilot survey has proved that treatment options for PTSD are efficient in eliminating PTSD symptoms from patients. For instance, only five out of fifteen participants reported re-experiencing PTSD symptoms after treatment. Also, when conducting the actual study, the Severity of PTSD and Burden of PTSD should be combined into one questionnaire to enhance efficiency. The social support aspect should be removed as it adds no value to the study. References Gapen, M., Kolk, B. A., Hirshberg, L., Suvak, M., & Spinazzola, J. (2016). A Pilot Study of Neurofeedback for Chronic PTSD. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 40(4). Lacey, K. K., McPherson, M. D., Samuel, P. S., Powell-Sears, K., & Head, D. (2013). The impact of different types of intimate partner violence on the mental and physical health of women in different ethnic groups. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28(2), 359-385.